POLITICAL IMAGE REPAIR STRATEGIES FOR UNITED MALAYS NATIONAL ORGANISATION (UMNO) IN MALAYSIA: A CASE STUDY
Purpose: This study aims to understand the strategies of Image Repair Theory to the image of United Malays National Organization (UMNO) as proposed by Malaysian political scholars. The image of UMNO had badly tarnished since 2008 during the result of 12th general election (GE12) on 8 March 2008 when the four states Penang, Selangor, Kedah and Kelantan loses to the opposition and lost the two-third majority in the parliament. UMNO image was blemish when they faced unexpected defeats in the 13th general election (GE13). In 13th General Election (GE 13) on 5 May 2013, UMNO the core party of BN lost by popular vote to the opposition parties. The results of the 13th general election marked a political phenomenon which saw BN lead by UMNO shows that the public’s is sending the message of rejecting UMNO. The images of UMNO are influenced by issues and problems faced from time to time.
Methodology: Qualitative approach is use for this study because the researcher would like to understand and explore how Image Repair Theory can restore UMNO images from Malaysian political scholar’s perspectives.
Implications: Results of this study will create knowledge that the images and reputation of the political parties will contribute to the political attitude, beliefs, and behaviors of the publics.
Novelty of study: This study is apparently one of few attempts to understand the application of Image Repair Theory on UMNO from Malaysian political scholar’s views and provide new strategies.
2. Benoit, W. L. (2016). Barack Obama’s 2008 speech on Reverend Wright: Defending self and others. Public Relations Review. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2016.09.003
3. Benoit, W. L., & Drew, S. (1997). Appropriateness and effectiveness of image repair strategies. Communication Reports, 10(2), 153–163. http://doi.org/10.1080/08934219709367671
4. Brown, N. a., Brown, K. a., & Billings, a. C. (2015). May No Act of Ours Bring Shame’’: Fan-Enacted Crisis Communication Surrounding the Penn State Sex Abuse Scandal. Communication and Sport, 3(3), 288–311. http://doi.org/10.1177/2167479513514387
5. Case, W. (1996). UMNO Paramountcy: A Report on Single-Party Dominance in Malaysia. Party Politics, 2(1), 115–127. http://doi.org/10.1177/1354068896002001006
6. Chimbarange, A., Mukenge, C., & FranciscaKombe. (2013). A Linguistic Analysis of Zimbabwean Prime Minister Morgan Tsvangirai ’ s Image Repair Discourse : Letter to the Zimbabwean Public ( 30 November 2011 ). International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(10), 147–153.
7. Chimbarange, A., Mukenge, C., & Mutambwa, J. (2013). Image Repair: Analysis of President Robert Gabriel Mugabe’s Rhetoric Following Sanctions on Zimbabwe. International Journal of Linguistics, 5(1), 306–319. http://doi.org/10.5296/ijl.v5i1.3319
8. Chin, J. (2010). Malaysian Chinese Association Politics a Year Later : Crisis of Political Legitimacy. The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs, 153–162. http://doi.org/10.1080/00358531003656255
9. Chin, J. (2015). Exporting the BN/UMNO model: Politics in Sabah and Sarawak. Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Malaysia, 83–92.
10. Compton, J. (2015). Political Humor on the Radio, Image Repair, and Gracie Allen’s 1940 Presidential Campaign. Journal of Radio & Audio Media, 22(2), 255–264. http://doi.org/10.1080/19376529.2015.1083158
11. Compton, J., & Miller, B. (2015). “You Lie!” and “I’m Sorry.”: Congressman Joe Wilson’s Outburst and Attempted Image Repair. Journal Of The Speech And Theatre Association Of Missouri, 45.
12. Davis, C. B. (2013). An inconvenient vote: Hillary Clinton’s Iraq war image repair debate strategies and their implications for representative democracy. Public Relations Review, 39(4), 315–319. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.07.008
13. Dewberry, D. R., & Fox, R. (2012). Easy as 1 , 2 , 3 : Rick Perry and Self-Deprecation as Image Restoration. Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, 2(1), 1–10.
14. Djupe, P. A., & Sokhey, A. E. (2014). The Distribution and Determinants of Socially Supplied Political Expertise. American Politics Research, 42(2), 199–225. http://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X13486924
15. Edwards, J. A., & Shaw, T. (2013). A Superpower Apologizes ? President Clinton ’ s Address in Rwanda. Communication and Theater Association of Minnesota Journal, 40(January), 20–31.
16. Eriksson, G., & Eriksson, M. (2012). Managing political crisis: an interactional approach to “image repair.” Journal of Communication Management, 16(3), 264–279. http://doi.org/10.1108/13632541211245776
17. Funk, C. L. (1997). Implications of political expertise in candidate trait evaluations. Political Research Quarterly, 50(3), 675–697. http://doi.org/10.1177/106591299705000309
18. Furgerson, J. L., & Benoit, W. L. (2013). Limbaugh’s Loose Lips: Rush Limbaugh’s Image Repair after the Sandra Fluke Controversy. Journal of Radio & Audio Media, 20(2), 273–291. http://doi.org/10.1080/19376529.2013.823971
19. Goren, P. (1997). Political Expertise and Issue Voting in Presidential Elections. Political Research Quarterly, 50(2), 387–412. http://doi.org/10.1177/106591299705000207
20. Hill, L. W. (2006). Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 11(1), 221–231.
21. Hilmi Hamzah, M., Yusof, N., Kasim, A., Ngah, K., Mustaffa, J., & Zakaria, Z. (2013). Nvivo approach and content analysis in media flow analysis and alternative selected prime: Permatang Pauh by-election. Asian Social Science, 9(15), 84–92. http://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n15p84
22. Holtzhausen, D. R., & Roberts, G. F. (2009). An Investigation into the Role of Image Repair Theory in Strategic Conflict Management. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(2), 165–186. http://doi.org/10.1080/10627260802557431
23. Idid, S. A., & Wok, S. (n.d.). Credibility Of Television , N Ewspaper And I Nternet With Popular Votes Of Barisan National During Elections By Race. MALAYSIAN JOURNAL OF MEDIA STUDIES, 41–56.
24. Low, Y. S.-Y., Varughese, J., & Pang, A. (2011). Communicating crisis: how culture influences image repair in Western and Asian governments. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 16(3), 218–242. http://doi.org/10.1108/13563281111156880
25. Lumsden, L. J. (2013). How Independent ? an Analysis of Ge13 Coverage By Malaysia ’ S Online News Portal Coverage Sejauh Mana Kebebasan ? Satu Analisis Liputan Pru13 Oleh Portal Berita Atas Talian. Malaysian Journal of Communication, 29(2), 1–30.
26. Masaviru, M. (2016). Image Restoration : From Theory to Practice ; the Case of Manny Pacquiao and Nike Company. New Media and Mass Communication, 51(August), 22–29.
27. Max, U., & Epp, S. (2013). Image Repair Through TV The Strategies of McGwire, Rodriguez and Bonds. Journal of Sports Media, 8(Number 1), 139–161.
28. Merriam, S. B. (1995). What can you tell from an N of 1?: Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research. PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 4, 51–60. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org.esc-web.lib.cbs.dk/10.4135/9781849208970.n10
29. Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative Research A Guide to Design and Implementation Revised and Expanded from Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint. Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street,.
30. Mohammad Redzuan, O., & Amer Saifude, G. (2013). The Voting Trend of the Parliamentary By-Elections After the Malaysian 12th General Election. Malaysian Journal of Democracy and Election Studies, 1(1), 96–115.
31. Paul Goren. (2000). Political Expertise and Principled Political Thought. Political Research Quarterly, 53(1), 117–136. http://doi.org/10.1177/106591290005300106
32. Pong, T. K., & Yee, T. Y. (2014). Urban Tsunami in the 13 th General Election : Voting Patterns of Chinese Voters. Malaysian Journal of Democracy and Election Studies, 2(2), 68–79.
33. Schmittel, A., & Hull, K. (2015). “ Shit Got Cray Cray #MYBAD” An Examination of the Image- Repair Discourse of Richie Incognito During the Miami Dolphins’ Bullying Scandal. Journal of Sports Media, 10(2), 115–137., https://doi.org/10.1353/jsm.2015.0009
34. Singh, D. S. R. (2015). The Formation of Malaysia: Advancing the Theses of Decolonization and Competing Expansionist Nationalisms. Journal of Management Research, 7(2), 209. http://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v7i2.6933
35. Xifra, J. (2012). Sex, lies, and post-trial publicity: The reputation repair strategies of Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 477–483. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.03.002
36. Yazid, A. P. D. M. N. M. (2014). Colonial Policy and the Impact to the Politico-Economy Stability after Independence: The case of Indonesia under the Dutch and Malaysia under the British. Review of History and Political Science, 2(3&4), 69–84. http://doi.org/10.15640/rhps.v2n3-4a4
Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License.