Main Article Content

Sherry Liang


approaches to learning,, American-born Chinese college students, Taiwanese college students, social context, deep, surface learning, ASI


Purpose:The purpose of this study was designed to bracket both population’s culturally-related study skills in an attempt to know their similarities and dissimilarities.

Methodology:The current study used a quasi-experimental quantitative researchto examine 62 American-born Chinese and 79 Taiwanese college students by using the Approaches to Studying Inventory to compare their learning study approaches.

Results:Data analysis revealed three significant results: (a) American-born Chinesestudentsexpressed more interesting in ideas in deep approach and syllabus-boundness in surface approach than Taiwanese students. (b) Taiwanese students showed more in seeking meaning in deep approaches and time management in strategic approach than American-born Chinese students (c) American-born Chinese students displayed grater extrinsic motivation than their Taiwanese counterparts whereas Taiwanese students were more intrinsically motivated academically than American-Born Chinese students.

Implications:Results suggest that American-born Chinese students’ learning approaches were influenced by their learning and social contexts.  Further studies could be conducted to identify the learning approaches in various generations of American-born Chinese to differentiate learning and social context influences.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 192 | PDF Downloads 68


Au, C.,& Entwistle, N. (2001). “Memorization with understanding” in approaches to studying: Cultural variant or response to assessment demands? Retrieved from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00001728.htm, 2:30 am, July 18th, 2017.

Biggs, J. B. (1996b). Assessing learning quality: Reconciling institutional, staff, and educational demands. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 2(1), 3-25.

Biggs, J.B. (2003). Teaching of quality learning at university (2nd ed.).Buckingham, UK: SRHE and Open University Press. ISBN-10: 0335242758

Biggs, J. B., Kember, D., & Leung, Y. P. (2001). The revised two-factor study process questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 71, 133-149.doi: 10.1348/000709901158433

Boland, G., Sugahara, S., Opdecam, E., & Everaert, P. (2011). The impact of cultural factors on students’ learning style preferences: A global comparison between Japan, Australia, and Belgium. Asian Review of Accounting. 19(3), 243-265. doi:10.1108/13217341111185155

Taylor, P., Cohn, D., Wang, W., Passel, J.S., Kochhar, R., Fry, R., Parker, K., Funk, C., Livingston, G.M., Patten, E., Motel, S., & Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (2012). The rise of Asian Americans. Pew Research Center, Social & Demographic Trends. Online publication. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2013/01/SDT_Rise_of_Asian_Americans.pdf

Chen, K.Y. (2014). What American educators can learn from Chinese secondary education.American Secondary Education, 42(2) 69-79.

Dahlin, B., & Watkins, D. (2000). The role of repetition in the processes of memorizing and understanding: A comparison of the views of German and Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 65-84.doi: 10.1348/000709900157976

De Vita, G. (2001). Learning styles, culture and inclusive instruction in the multicultural classroom: a business and management perspective. Innovations in Education and Teaching International.38(2), p. 165-74. doi: 10.1080/1470329011003537

Dumbaugh, K. (2009). Taiwan’s political status: Historical background and its implications for U.S. policy. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS22388.pdf.

Edelstein, D. (2010). How is innovation taught? On the humanities and the knowledge economy. Liberal Education, 96(1).Online publication. Retrieved from https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/how-innovation-taught-humanities-and-knowledge-economy.

Eley, M. G. (1992). Differential adoption of study approaches within individual students. Higher Education, 23, 231-254.doi: 10.1007/BF00145015

Entwistle, N. J. (2000). Promoting deep learning through teaching and assessment: Conceptual frameworks and educational contexts. Paper presented at the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) Conference inLeicester, England, November 2000. Retrieved from www.tlrp.org/acadpub/Entwistle2000.pdf

Entwistle, N. J., McCune, V., & Tait, H. (2013). Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Report of the development and use of the inventories. Retrieved from http://www.etl.tla.ed.ac.uk//questionnaires/ASSIST.pdf

Entwistle, N. J., & Peterson, E. R. (2004). Learning styles and approaches to studying. In C. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology (pp. 537-542). New York, NY: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B0-12-657410-3/00487-6

Entwistle, N.J., & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding student learning. London, UK: Groom Helm. doi: 10.2307/3121589

Figueiredo, A.D.,& Afonso, A.P. (2006). Context and Learning: A philosophical framework. In Figueiredo, A.D. & Afonso, A.P. (eds.). Managing learning in virtual settings: The role of context. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Hirschman, C.,& Wong, M. G., (1986). The extraordinary educational attainment of Asian-Americans: A search for historical evidence and explanations. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. doi: 10.2307/2578933

Hofstede, G. (1997) (Ed.). The Archimedes effect. In M. H. Bond (Ed.) Working at the interface of cultures: Eighteen lives in social science. London, UK: Routledge, 47-61.

Huang, L. N., & Ying, Y. W. (1989). Chinese American children and adolescents. In J. T. Gibbs & L. N. Huang (Eds.) Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth, 30-66. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Sage.

Joy, J.,& Kolb, D. (2007). Are there cultural differences in learning style? Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved from https://weatherhead.case.edu/departments/organizational-behavior/workingPapers/WP-07-01.pdf. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.11.002

Lee, W. O. (1996). The cultural context for Chinese learners: Conceptions of learning in the Confucian tradition. In D. Watkins & J. Biggs (Eds.), The Chinese learner: Cultural, psychological and contextual influences (pp. 25-41). Hong Kong, China: Comparative Education Research Centre, University of Hong Kong.doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.29002 3, 158

Louie, V. (2001). Parents’ aspirations and investment: The role of social class in the educational experiences of 1.5- and second-generation Chinese-Americans. Harvard Educational Review,71(3), 438-474.doi: 10.17763/haer.71.3.lv51475vjk600h38

McGrath, D.,& Tobia, S. (2008). Organizational Culture as a Hidden Resource. Wiley Interscience Publication, No. 144. Wiley Periodicals. doi:10.1002/cc. 344.

Park, C. C. (2000). Learning style preferences of Southeast Asian students. Urban Education, 35, 245-268.

Pearce, R. R.,& Lin, Z. (2007). Chinese American post-secondary achievement and attainment: A cultural and structural analysis. Educational Review, 59(1), 19-36. doi:10.1080/00131910600796827.

Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. London, UK: Routledge-Falmer.

Richardson, J.T.E. (2010). Approaches to studying, conceptions of learning and learning styles in higher education. Learning and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.

Segers, M., Nijhuis, J., & Gijselaers, W. (2006). Redesigning a learning and assessment environment: The influence on students’ perceptions of assessment demands and their learning strategies. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 32(3), 223-242. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc.2006.08.004

Sit, W.H.H. (2013). Characteristics of Chinese students’ learning styles. International Proceedings of Economics Development & Research,62(8), 26-39. doi:10.7763/IPEDR.

Smith, S. N. (2001). Approaches to studying of three Chinese national groups. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 429-441. doi: 10.1348/000709901158604

Speth, C. A., Lee, D. J., & Hain, P. (2003). Get an ASSIST and support your students learning online. Retrieved from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/handouts/03Info_H21.pdf.

Subramaniam, G. (2008). Confronting Asian concerns in engaging learners to online education. International Education Studies, 1(4), 10-18.

Sue, S., & Okazaki, S. (2009). Asian-American educational achievements: A phenomenon in research of an explanation. Asian American Journal of Psychology. S(1), 45-55. doi: 10.1037/1948-1985

Sun, H.,& Richardson, J.T.E. (2011). Perceptions of quality and approaches to studying in higher education: A comparative study of Chinese and British postgraduate students at six British business schools. High Education. doi:10.1007/s10734-011.9442-y.

Tran, T. T. (2013). Is the learning approach of students from the Confucian heritage culture problematic? Educational Research for Policy and Practice. doi10.1007/s10671-012-9131-3.

Urban, G. (2001). Metaculture: How culture moves through the world. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Vermetten, Y. J., Lodewijks, H. G., & Vermunt, J. D. (1999). Consistency and variability of learning strategies in different university courses. Higher Education, 37(1), 1-21.

Wang, R., & Niu, W. (2013). Cultural difference in stereotype perceptions and performances in nonverbal deductive reasoning and creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47(1), 41-59. doi:10.1002/joch.22.