ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: THE ORIGIN AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS

Main Article Content

Husnul Isa Harahap

Keywords

Islamic politics, Islamic political party, Political identity, Political ideology, General Election, Democracy

Abstract

Purpose: The objective of the study was to describe factors that influenced the establishment of the Islamic political parties and its political problems in South East Asia.


Methodology: The research methodology used in the present research study is a literature study method with qualitative analysis. The data obtained from documents and books which were studied by online and offline. The gathered data analysed by using political theories. One of them was the analysis of the emergence of Islamic political parties.


Main Findings: The study had two main findings. First, there were six factors which influenced the establishment of Islamic political parties, that is the demography, political system, political ideology, contagion, international political economy, and political competition. Secondly, there were four problems faced by Islamic political parties in winning the political contest, especially in the general election. The first problem was the division of local cultural identity, followed by the unfavorable situation for Islamic political parties, political ideology, and the quality of Islamic political parties themselves.


Implications: It had a theoretical implication on the harmony between Islam and democracy, the emergence of Islamic political parties, and the problems. It revealed that there was no problem between the existence of Islamic political parties and democracy.


Novelty: When the secular political party lost public trust, the voters did not automatically shift their political votes to the Islamic political parties.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 26 | PDF Downloads 23 XML Downloads 1 ePUB Downloads 2

References

1. Abdalla, U. A. (Ed.). (2002). Islam dan Barat: Demokrasi dalam Masyarakat Islam. Jakarta: Friedrich-Nauman-Stiftung (FNS).
2. Amir, Z. A. (2003). Peta Islam Politik Pasca Soeharto. Jakarta: LP3ES.
3. Asmardika, R. (2017). Tokoh Muslim Minoritas Akan Disumpahsebagai PM Baru Timor Leste. Oke News. Retrieved from https://news.okezone.com/read/2017/09/14/18/1775832/tokoh-muslim-minoritas-akan-disumpah-sebagai-pm-baru-timor-leste. Accessed on 01 Aug 2019.
4. Buehler, M. (2009). Islam and Democracy in Indonesia. Insight Turkey, 11, (4), 51-63.
5. Freedom House. (2018). Freedom in the World 2018 - Brunei. Online Data. UNHCR. Retrieved fromhttps://www.refworld.org/docid/5bcdce34c.html. Accessed on 01 Aug 2019.
6. Funston, J. (2018). Malaysia’s 14th General Election (GE14) – The Contest for the Malay Electorate. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 37, (3), 57–83. Retrieved from https://journals.sub.uni-hamburg.de/giga/jsaa/article/view/1148/. Accessed on 01 Aug 2019. https://doi.org/10.1177/186810341803700304
7. Geertz, C. (1989). Abangan, Santri, Priyayi dalam Masyarakat Jawa. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.
8. Ghafur, J., & Arif, M. Y. al. (2017). Suksesi Kepemimpinan dalam Partai Politik: (Studi atas Partai Golkar dan Partai Persatuan Pembangunan). Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM, 24(4), 577–600. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol24.iss4.art4. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019. https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol24.iss4.art4
9. Hairi, N. A. B. (2017). Coalition Politics Among Opposition Parties In Malaysia: A Case Study Of Pakatan Rakyat (2008-2016). Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), Volume 129. Presented at the Third International Conference on Social and Political Sciences (ICSPS 2017). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.2991/icsps-17.2018.36. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019. https://doi.org/10.2991/icsps-17.2018.36
10. Haqqani, H., & Fradkin, H. (2008). Islamist Parties: Going Back to the Origins. Journal of Democracy, 19(3), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.0.0008
11. Haris, S. (1988). Pola dan Kecenderungan Konflik Partai Masa Orde Baru. Analisa, (5), 269–291. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.0.0008
12. Hamayotsu, K. (2011). The End of Political Islam? A Comparative Analysis ofReligious Parties in the Muslim Democracy of Indonesia. Journal of CurrentSoutheast Asian Affairs, 30, (3), 133-159. https://doi.org/10.1177/186810341103000305
13. Huntington, S. P. (1991). Religion and the Third Wave. The National Interest, (24), 29–42.
14. Iclasul Amal, & Panggabean, R. (1990). Kontroversi Partai Terbuka di Indonesia.Prospek, 1(2), 73–84.
15. Indrya Smita, N. (1986). Radikalisasi Islam di Malaysia: Kasus Partai Islam Sa Malaysia (PAS) 1974-7984 (Skripsi Sarjana). Jakarta:Program Studi Ilmu Politik FISIP Universitas Indonesia.
16. Infographics. The Star Online GE14. Retrieved from https://election.thestar.com.my/infographics.html. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
17. Kamm, H. (1995). Communism in Laos: Poverty and a Thriving Elite. The New York Times.Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1995/07/30/world/communism-in-laos-poverty-and-a-thriving-elite.html.Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
18. Khoiri, I. (2012, January 16). Sulitnya PPP Menjadi “Rumah Bersama.” Kompas.Com. Retrieved from https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2012/01/16/03221359/Sulitnya.PPP.Menjadi.Rumah.Bersama.Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
19. Magenda, B. D. (1990). Perubahan Masyarakat dan Kesinambungan dalam Pembelahan Masyarakat Indonesia. Jurnal Prisma, 4, 3–17.
20. McKenna, T. M. (1998). Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft0199n64c/. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
21. Moniruzzaman, M., & Farzana, K. F. (2018). Malaysia’ 14th General Election: End of an Epoch, and Beginning of a New?.Intellectual Discourse, 26(1), 207-228. Retrieved from https://journals.iium.edu.my/intdiscourse/index.php/islam/article/view/1121. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
22. Muhtadi, B. (2012). Dilema PKS Suara dan Syariah. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia.
23. Munawwaroh. (2013, February 10). Pendiri Akui PKS Memang Ikhwanul Muslimin. Tempo.Co. Retrieved from https://nasional.tempo.co/read/460337/pendiri-akui-pks-memang-ikhwanul-muslimin. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
24. Muslim Population. (2018). Asia Muslim Population in 2018. Online Data. Retrieved from http://www.muslimpopulation.com/asia/, accessed on 01 Aug 2019.
25. Mutalib, H. (1995). Islam dan Etnisitas: Perspektif Politik Melayu. Jakarta: LP3ES.
26. Putra, F. (2003). Partai Politik & Kebijakan Publik. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
27. Ratnawati, T., Haris, S. Political Parties in Indonesia from the 1950s to 2004: An Overview. Working Paper No. 611 December 2008. Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08bc0e5274a31e0000d4e/wp61.pdf, Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
28. Romli, L. (2004). Partai Islam dan Pemilih Islam di Indonesia. JurnalPenelitianPolitik. 1 (1), 29-48. https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v1i1.370
29. Romli, L. (2006). Islam Yes, Partai Islam Yes: Sejarah Perkembangan Partai-Partai Islam di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
30. Romli, L. (2009). Peta Kekuatan Politik Hasil Pemilu 2009. Jurnal Penelitian Politik, 6(1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.14203/jpp.v6i1.523
31. Singapore Elections. (2004). Angkatan Islam Singapura. Online Data. Retrieved from http://www.singapore-elections.com/political-parties/ai-pmip.html, accessed on 01 Aug 2019.
32. Sugiarto, B. A. (2010). Anti Partai. Jakarta: Gramata Publishing.
33. Suruhan Pilihan Raya Malaysia. (2018). Keputusan Terkini Dewan Undangan Negeri. Resource Document. SPRMalaysia. Retrieved from http://pru14.spr.gov.my/#!/parliament. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
34. Triono. (2015). Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Menurunnyaperolehan Suara Parpol Islam Pada Pemilu 2014. Jurnal TAPIs, 11(1), 92–106.Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.24042/tps.v11i1.843. Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.
35. Woischnik, J., Müller, P. (2013). Islamic Parties and Democracy in Indonesia: Insights from The World’s Largest Muslim Country. Kas International Reports 10.Retrieved from https://www.kas.de/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=0926cd78-a45d-5a57-7c4b-e776f8de78c2&g roupId=2 520 38 . Accessed on 01 Aug, 2019.