International Journal of Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurial Research <p>International Journal of Management, Innovation &amp; Entrepreneurial Research [eISSN 2395-7662] aims to publish original research results, reviews, case studies on recent&nbsp;development in management studies, innovation and entrepreneurial research and related domains.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> GIAP Journals en-US International Journal of Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurial Research 2395-7662 <p>Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content published in this journal.&nbsp;</p> CORRUPTION AND OBSTACLES FOR CONDUCTING BUSINESS IN FORMER FRENCH WEST AFRICA <p>This study examines the extent of corruption and obstacles to conducting business in some former French West Africa countries.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study uses business owner’s and mangers perceptions about the use of gifts or informal payments and obstacles to conducting business in five African countries.&nbsp; Data comes from the World Bank Institute and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s Business Environment and Economic Performance study.&nbsp; Data from Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegal, and Togo were examined.&nbsp; Univariate general linear analysis was used to discover statistical differences between factors by country.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings: </strong>Results show Senegalese managers and owners perceived the lowest obstacles to conducting business among the five countries.&nbsp; Togo business managers and owners are slightly less positive about obstacles they face in their businesses.&nbsp; Businesses in the five countries on average pay about eight percent of their annual sales as gifts/informal payments.</p> <p><strong>Limitations: </strong>The study uses data that is about ten years old.&nbsp; The political and economic environment may have changed in these countries since data collection.</p> <p><strong>Social Implications: </strong>The significant level of obstacles business faces in these countries may significantly reduce foreign direct investment in these countries.&nbsp; Electricity is an obstacle in most of these countries reducing the ability if not the interest in conducting business.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Novelty of the Study: </strong>The French strategy in this region for three hundred years was to rule through the military not the development of economic systems.&nbsp; The results of this strategy may still be apparent in the number and degree of obstacles facing business only 50 years after independence.</p> Frank H. Wadsworth Jerry E. Wheat Brenda K. Swartz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-27 2019-02-27 5 1 18 23 10.18510/ijmier.2019.513 RANKING OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE MOBILIZATION OF BANK RESOURCES USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS (CASE STUDY: IRANAIN HEKMAT BANK) <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the factors affecting the resources mobilization of Iranian&nbsp;Hekmat Bank.<br><strong>Methodology</strong>: In this research, six main factors are considered in mobilizing resources and deposits of customers of&nbsp;the bank. The statistical population of this research is senior credits managers of Iranian Hekmat Bank. The ranking of&nbsp;these factors has also been done using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert Choice Software (ECS).<br><strong>Main Findings</strong>: The results of this study showed that the factor of loyalty and organizational affiliation has the most&nbsp;impact on resources mobilization. Afterwards, communications and human factors, financial factors, advisory factors,&nbsp;service factors and physical factors are effective in mobilizing bank resources, respectively.<br><strong>Implications</strong>: The results of this study can be used to increase the quality of mobilization which directly affects the&nbsp;profitability of resources. Also this research can help other banks to absorb the financial resources and increases the level&nbsp;of invest in the banks. In addition it can help banks to improve their loan paying.<br><strong>Novelty</strong>: This research has focused on the large number of factors which can affect mobilization of bank resources which&nbsp;other previous researches have not addressed all these factors together. No other previous researches have focused on the&nbsp;strategies of fundraising, but in this research this goal has been focused.</p> Majid Hashemi Dehchi Elnaz Nasirzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-22 2019-02-22 5 1 24 32 10.18510/ijmier.2019.514 DOES DARK COMPLEXION MATTER? A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ONLINE ADVERTISEMENTS FROM WATSONS AND GUARDIAN IN 2017 <p><strong>Purpose of the study:</strong>This study attempt to analyse the frame of online advertisements from Watsons and Guardian. Both companies utilized the similar storyline in advertising its products during the Hari Raya period, however, advertisement from Watsons had given rise to controversy and racial issue has been raised.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>This study employed quantitative content analysis and qualitative textual analysis to ensure a more reliable finding in research.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong>The finding reveals that advertisement from Watsons often framed women in a negative light by 1) Definingbeauty as being fair skinned, 2) Interpreting women’s quality of relationship correlates with the fairness of their skin, 3) Framing and judging dark skinned women as negative and unable to pursue their dream love life, and 4) providing skin whitening remedies to solve their problems. This contrasts with Guardian’s advertisement which was framed more neutral.</p> <p><strong>Applications of this study:</strong>This study stressed the significance of business ethics and corporate responsibility.It is not uncommon when an advertiser exaggerates some characteristics of the advertisements in order to attract people’s attention. However, exaggerated advertisements might contain some misleading information which may influence the credibility and truthfulness of the then and future advertisements and hence could further affect the company negatively as consumers had lost confidence in the company.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality of this study:</strong> Most framing studies focused on types offrames, information/news sources and slants of frame, this study provides an in-depth analysis on the four framing functions suggested by Entman,which is less explored in the field.&nbsp;</p> Lim Shiang Shiang Clarence Anthony Puspanathan Ninderpal Singh Balwant Singh Charles Ramendran Subramaniam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 5 1 01 09 10.18510/ijmier.2019.511 CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY AMONG MANAGERS: A STUDY ON ORGANIZATIONS IN MALAYSIA <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: This study aims to highlight the necessary competencies among the middle level managers, especially the cross-cultural communication competency. This study was designed to investigate the cross-cultural communication competencies in organizations through the focus group conducted among the senior management levels.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: This study applied the beauty of qualitative research by conducting a focus group of ten participants, where all of them were from various industries in Malaysia. They are well mixed of women and men Senior Managers level and above, where the minimum level of them was the Director, General Manager, and Vice President of private enterprises. Data from the focus group discussion was analyzed and presented in the findings in this article.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The findings of this paper proven the need of cross-cultural communication competency currently in Malaysia through the ten (10) participants involved in the focus group research and ten (10) cases were presented in this article. Different participant provided different findings however, the data summarization was presented in the table in results. Majority concluded that employees nowadays are conscious competence and agreed that cross-cultural communication is the most crucial competency needed by all organization today.</p> <p><strong>Implications</strong>: This should provide several ideas to the senior management levels in incorporating this aspect into their management training programmes or other activities in all organizations. Further studies could be expanded through the methodology used.</p> <p><strong>Novelty of Study</strong>: As past research concentrated more on the leadership and other management competencies, this study was looking at the specific issue of cross-cultural communication competencies among these employees in organizations. With the peculiar scenario in Malaysia, this paper contributed to the management field as a reference for the higher and middle level managers.</p> Norizzati Azudin Yusram Yusup ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-27 2019-01-27 5 1 10 17 10.18510/ijmier.2019.512