Main Article Content

Faeze Yazdani Rostam
Anoosha Kia
Azadeh Sadeghian
Mahdieh Khosravi


Concept of privacy, Iranian culture, Iranian Eecology, Aarchitectural space


Purpose:This article seeks to demonstrate the reasons and origin of the presence of architectural sanctum, based on the quality of human-environment relationship.

Methodology: Researcher used qualitative method and analytical-descriptive research method, after explaining the effective principles and approaches in understanding the subject and examining it from the perspective of different approaches, it is analysed in examples that each of them has been effective in some ways in creating real quality in architecture space.

Findings:The obtained results show how the true and pure quality search in space, which rising from the harmony of architectural sanctums with the human nature's desires, has been converted into plain impressions of privacy in some contemporary approaches and to deep conceptual references related to it in others.

Implications:Understanding the concept of privacy in architecture and identifying its defining criteria provides a framework for evaluating the qualities of these approaches. Hence, this paper sets out its discussion by answering these questions: "What is privacy, how does it emerge in Iranian architecture, and how do the inhabitants of these spaces respond to it?"


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 63 | PDF Downloads 45


1. Altman, I., Vinsel, A., & Brown, B. B. (1981). Dialectic conceptions in social psychology: An application to social penetration and privacy regulation1 Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 107-160): Elsevier.
2. Askwith, B., Merabti, M., & Shi, Q. (2000). MNPA: a mobile network privacy architecture. Computer Communications, 23(18), 1777-1788,
3. Bersoff, D. N. (2003). Ethical conflicts in psychology: American Psychological Association.
4. Brown, H. (2012). Benefits services privacy architecture: Google Patents.
5. Dehghani Vahid, H. (2015). A Statistical Review of Top Cited ISI Papers Regarding the Different Effects of Climate Change on Rivers. International Journal of Research and Innovations in Earth Science, 2(5), 140-146.
6. Fazlolahzade Sadati, S., Heydari, M., Javaheri, N., & Othman, F. (2014). Water Yield Estimation in Polrudwatershed Based on Empirical Methods and Modelling in Geographic Information System (GIS). Journal of River Engineering, 2(7).
7. Gedik, B., & Liu, L. (2008). Protecting location privacy with personalized k-anonymity: Architecture and algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 7(1), 1-18,
8. Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental psychology: Principles and practice: Optimal books Colville, WA.
9. Giurco, D. P., White, S. B., & Stewart, R. A. (2010). Smart metering and water end-use data: Conservation benefits and privacy risks. Water, 2(3), 461-467,
10. Habibi Khalifeloo, M., Mohammad, M., & Heydari, M. (2015). Application of Different Statistical Methods to Recover Missing Rainfall Data in the Klang River Catchment. International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics, 3(4).
11. Heydari, M., Othman, F., & Noori, M. (2013). A review of the Environmental Impact of Large Dams in Iran. International Journal of Advancements Civil Structural and Environmental Engineering, IJACSE, 1(1), 4.
12. Heydari, M., Othman, F., & Qaderi, K. (2015). Developing optimal reservoir operation for multiple and multipurpose reservoirs using mathematical programming. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2015,
13. Heydari, M., Othman, F., Qaderi, K., Noori, M., & Pasa, A. (2015). Introduction to linear programming as a popular tool in optimal reservoir operation, a review. Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(3), 906-917.
14. Heydari, M., Sadeghian, M. S., & Moharrampour, M. (2013). Flood Zoning Simulation byHEC-RAS Model (Case Study: Johor River-Kota Tinggi Region).
15. Hong, J. I., & Landay, J. A. (2004). An architecture for privacy-sensitive ubiquitous computing. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services,
16. Johnson, C. A. (1974). Privacy as personal control. Man-environment interactions: evaluations and applications: part, 2, 83-100.
17. Khalifehloo, M. H., Mohammad, M., & Heydari, M. (2017). Application of artificial neural network and regression analysis to recovery of missing hydrological data in Klang River Basin. Environmental Conservation, Clean Water, Air & Soil (CleanWAS), 67.
18. Khalifeloo, M. H., Mohammad, M., & Heydari, M. (2015). Multiple imputation for hydrological missing data by using a regression method (Klang river basin). International Journal of Researchin Engineering and Technology, 4, 06.
19. Khosravi, M. J., Kianinejad, M. K., Yazdanirostam, F., Sadeghian, A., & ShahiriParsa, A. (2018). An Overview of the Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Crisis Management with an Emphasis on Flood Zoning. IJRDO - Journal of Applied Science, 4(7), 1-10.
20. Khosravi, M. J., Sabouri Deylami, S., Sadeghian, A., & ShahiriParsa, A. (2018). Executive Plans for Managing Water Crisis in Tehran. Journal of River Engineering, 4(1), 1-5.
21. Laufer, R. S., & Wolfe, M. (1977). Privacy as a concept and a social issue: A multidimensional developmental theory. Journal of social Issues, 33(3), 22-42,
22. Noori, M., Sharifi, M. B., & Heydari, M. (2014). Comparison of the SDSM and LARS-WG weather generators in Modeling of Climate Change in Golestan Province of Iran. Paper presented at the 8th National Congress on Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology.
23. Olivier, M. S. (2003). A layered architecture for privacy-enhancing technologies. South African Computer Journal, 2003(31), 53-61.
24. Othman, F., Sadeghian, M., & Heydari, M. (2012). Investigate the Potential and Limitations of Meta-heuristics Algorithms Applied in Reservoir Operation Systems: 2012a.
25. Othman, F., Sadeghian, M., Heydari, M., & Rezaei, A. (2012). Preliminary Review of the Optimal Operation of Reservoir Systems using Common Calculation Methods. Paper presented at the International Conference On Water Resources “Sharing Knowledge Of Issues In Water Resources Management To Face The Future.
26. Othman, F., Sadeghian, M., Heydari, M., & Rezaei, A. (2012). PRELIMINARY REVIEW OF THE OPTIMAL OPERATION OF RESERVOIR SYSTEMS USING OPTIMIZATION AND SIMULATION METHODS. Paper presented at the International Conference On Water Resources “Sharing Knowledge Of Issues In Water Resources Management To Face The Future.
27. Othman, F., Sadeghian, M. S., Ebrahimi, F., & Heydari, M. (2013). A Study on Sedimentation in Sefidroud Dam by using Depth Evaluation and Comparing the Results with USBR and FAO methods. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Environment, Energy and Biotechnology. doi.
28. Pastalan, L. (1970). Privacy as an Expression of Human Territoriality, Spatial behavior of older people ED: Leon A Pastalan and Daniel H Carson. Michigan: University of Michigan.
29. Pastalan, L. A. (1970). Privacy as an expression of human territoriality. Spatial behavior of older people, 88-101.
30. Proshansky, H. M. (1973). Theoretical issues in environmental psychology. Representative research in social psychology, 4(1), 93-107.
31. Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (1970a). Environmental psychology: Man and his physical setting: Holt, Rinehart and Winston New York.
32. Proshansky, H. M., Ittelson, W. H., & Rivlin, L. G. (1970b). Freedom of choice and behavior in a physical setting. Environmental psychology: Man and his physical setting, 173-183.
33. Ruotsalainen, P. S., Blobel, B., Seppälä, A., & Nykänen, P. (2013). Trust information-based privacy architecture for ubiquitous health. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 1(2),
34. Sadeghian, M. S. (1995). Systems Analysis of a Complex Water Resources System.
35. Sadeghian, M. S., Daneshkhah, M., & Heydari, M. (2017). A Comparison between the Amount of Reservoir Sediment Load Prediction during Design Period and the Operational Period. International Journal of Ground Sediment & Water, 6, 277-292.
36. Sadeghian, M. S., Heydari, M., Noori, M., Ebrahimi, F., & ShahiriParsa, A. (2014). Evaluating the Suspended Sediment of Mahabad Dam Using Statistical Methods. Journal of River Engineering, 2(7), 10.
38. Salarian, M., Najafi, M., Hosseini, S. V., & Heydari, M. (2015). Classification of Zayandehrud river basin water quality regarding agriculture, drinking, and industrial usage. American Research Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, 1(1).
39. Salarian, M., Shokri, Z., & Heydari, M. (2014). Determination of the Best Model for Flood Flows in the Western Basin of Lake Urmia. Journal of River Engineering, 2(4).
40. Schwartz, B. (1968). The social psychology of privacy. American Journal of Sociology, 73(6), 741-752,
41. ShahiriParsa, A., Noori, M., Heydari, M., & Rashidi, M. (2016). Floodplain Zoning Simulation by Using HEC-RAS and CCHE2D Models in the Sungai Maka River. Air, Soil and Water Research, 9, 55,
42. ShahiriParsa, A., & Vuatalevu, N. Q. (2013). Introduction to floodplain zoning simulation models through dimensional approach. Paper presented at the International Conference on Advances in Structural, Civil and Environmental Engineering-SCEE2013, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
43. Urien, P., Nyami, D., Elrharbi, S., Chabanne, H., Icart, T., Pépin, C., . . . Pujolle, G. (2008). HIP tags privacy architecture. Paper presented at the Systems and Networks Communications, 2008. ICSNC'08. 3rd International Conference on,
44. Vahid, H. D., Noori, M., Heydari, M., & Sheikhi, M. (2016). An investigation into the qualitative and quantitative effects of climate change on rivers in Iran. International Journal of Review in Life Sciences, 6(2), 6-13.
45. Westin, A. F., & Ruebhausen, O. M. (1967). Privacy and freedom (Vol. 1): Atheneum New York.
46. Wolfe, M., Laufer, R. S., & Schearer, M. (1976). Private places: The concept of privacy in childhood and adolescence: Centre for Human Environments.