Main Article Content

Basanta Manjari Swain
Sagar H S


Congenital talipusequinovarus, dysplasia, Ponseti method, Pirani, talonavicular.


Clubfoot or Congenital Talipus Equinovarus is the most common congenital deformity of the foot characterized by equinus, varus, adduction, and cavus deformities in various combinations. The deformity may be mild which appears as a slight exaggeration of normal equinovarus position or severe with foot almost in contact with the medial border of tibia.

The severity of the deformity has to be graded for quantification of abnormalities before and after treatment. As this deformity has intraosseous and interosseous components as well as soft tissue changes with atrophic and rudimentary muscles resulting from theabnormal bony relationship, they can be evaluated using radiography and ultrasonography.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 83 | PDF Downloads 44


[1]. S. Terry Canale, James H. Beaty, Campbell’s Operative Orthopaedics, Part IX Congenital And Developmental Disorders, Page: 994.
[2]. Carol M. Rumack, Stephanie R. Wilson, J. William Charboneau, Deborah Levine, Diagnostic Ultrasound, 4th Edition, Volume 2, Page:1419.
[3]. Dimeglio A, Bensahel H, Souchet P, Bonnet F. Classification of clubfoot. J PediatrOrthop B. 1995;4:129–36
[4]. Pirani S, Outerbridge H, Moran M, Sawatsky B. A method of evaluating virgin clubfoot with substantial interobserver reliability. POSNA
[5]. Andrew M. Wainwright, Tanya Auld, Michael K. Benson,Tim N. Theologi The classification of congenital talipesequinovarus. The Bone & Joint Journal 84(7):1020-4 • October 2002
[6]. VanderWilde R, Staheli LT, Chew DE, and Malagon V: Measurements on Radiographs of the Foot in Normal Infants and Children. J Bone J Surg 70-A:407--415, 1988
[7]. Prabhudev Prasad et. al. Clinico-radiological assessment and their correlation in clubfeet treated with postero-medial soft-tissue release, International Orthopaedics February 2009, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 225–229.
[8]. Howard CB, Benson MK Theossific nuclei and the cartilage anlage of the talus and calcaneum. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992 Jul; 74(4):620-3.
[9]. Aurell Y, Adlercreutz C, Andriesse H, Jonsson K Acta Repeatability of sonographic measurements in clubfeet. Radiol. 2004 Oct; 45(6):622-7.
[10]. Bhargava SK, Tandon A, Prakash M, Arora SS, Bhatt S, Bhargava S. Radiography and sonography of clubfoot: a comparative study. Indian J Orthop. 2012;46:229-35.