Purpose of study: This study tries to figure out whether Adrienne Kennedy’s play “Funnyhouse of a Negro” was direct and clear or indirect and implicit when she expresses a black woman’s struggle with identity.
Methodology: This study adopts a mix mode approach of Martin and white (2005) attitudinal category of Appraisal theory so as to analyze, frame, and to answer the research questions by which is proposed for this full research paper.
Main Findings: The inscribed instances have exceeded the invoked ones in the whole corpus of “Funnyhouse of a Negro”, concerning how did Sarah; the protagonist, as well as her split figures, have portrayed her white mother and a black father. The outcomes suggest that Kennedy was very clear and direct to deliver her moral judgment to her audiences/readers regarding the status of African American women in American based on analyzing the discourses of the main characters in the play.
Implications/Applications: Therefore, this play has gained very much respect and admiration from critics, readers, and audiences because of the playwright’s direct descriptions of Sarah and her parents in the American arena as well as her attempt to form new status as an individual human being who have a right to live such as any white American civilian.
Originality/Novelty of Study: The appraisal approach is a fairly new extension in the area of Systemic Functional Linguistics. It has been applied mainly to non-fictional discourse, particularly to certain texts with an argumentative task such as journalistic and political speeches. There is an increasing interest in the utilization of this theory to the analysis of literary texts, involving narrative fiction (Alsanafi&Mohd Noor, 2019). The researcher does not find any study employs Appraisal category to discover the clearness of expressions to describe woman’s oppression in Adriane Kennedy’s “Funnyhouse of a Negro”.
- Alsanafi, I. H., &Mohd Noor, S. N. F. (2019). Development of black feminine identity in two Postmodern American plays through appraisal framework: Comparative study. Revista Amazonia Investiga, 8(21), 104-116.
- Alsanafi, I. H., &Mohd Noor, S. N. F.(2018a). A systematic review of African-American women's identity struggle in American drama. Opción, 34, 1116-1130.
- Alsanafi, I. H., &Mohd Noor, S. N. F.(2018b). Black woman identity struggle: An examination of American drama through appraisal theory framework. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, 10(10), 310-318.
- Alsina, V., Espunya, A., &Naro, M. W. (2017). An appraisal theory approach to point of view in “Mansfield Park” and its translations. International Journal of Literary Linguistics, 6(1), 1-28.
- Balaji, B. (2015). Confused identities: Race, gender, culture in Adrienne Kennedy’s “Funnyhouse of a Negro”. International Research Journal of Humanities, Engineering & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 (1), 48-50.
- Barnett, C. (1997). A prison of object relations: Adrienne Kennedy's “Funnyhouse of a negro”. Modern Drama, 40(3), 374-384. https://doi.org/10.3138/md.40.3.374
- Bell, J. D. (2015). African American women leaders in the Civil Rights Movement: A narrative inquiry. Doctoral dissertation, Antioch University, California.
- Bock, Z. (2007). A discourse analysis of selected truth and reconciliation commission testimonies: Appraisal and genre. Doctoral dissertation, University of Western Cape, Cape Town.
- Curb, R. K. (1980). Fragmented selves in Adrienne Kennedy's" Funnyhouse of a negro" and" The owl answers". Theatre Journal, 32(2), 180-195. https://doi.org/10.2307/3207111
- Das, S. (2012). Quest for identity: A major concern in the life and literature of African-Americans. A journal of Humanities & Social Science,1(1),28-88
- Dong, T., & Lin, X. (2018). Attitude in appraisal theory: A comparative analysis of English versions of Changgan Xing. International Journal of Comparative Literature and Translation Studies, 6(1), 42-49. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijclts.v.6n.1p.42
- Ferris, F. S. (2010). Appraisal, identity and gendered discourse in toilet graffiti: A study in transgressive semiotics. Doctoral dissertation, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town.
- Gale, C. L. (2016). A Study guide for Adrienne Kennedy's "Funnyhouse of a negro". Gale, Cengage Learning.
- Hadidi, Y., &Mohammadbagheri-Parvin, L. (2015). Systemic functional linguistics as interpersonal semantics: Appraisal and attitude in the stylistic analysis of an English novel. International Journal of Linguistics, 7(1), 129-148.
- Jeffries, R. B., & Jeffries, D. (2014). Reclaiming our roots: The influences of media curriculum on the natural hair movement. Multicultural Perspectives, 16(3), 160-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/15210960.2014.926747
- Kennedy, A (2011). “Funnyhouse of a negro”: A play in one act. Samuel French, Inc.
- Li, Y., & Gao, Y. (2013). An attitude study on the conflict between mother and her daughter-in-law in the novel double-sided adhesive from appraisal theory perspective. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 3(10), 1784-1789.
- Martin, J. R., & White, P. R. R. (2005). The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230511910
- Mohd Noor,F. (2015). Empowering the powerful: A critical discourse analysis of public discourse on graduate employability. Doctoral dissertation. Macquarie University, Sydney.
- Nowrouzi, T., &Faghfori, S. (2015). Am I an African or an American? Duboisian double consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 4(3), 174-180. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.4n.3p.174
- Peng, X. (2008). Evaluative meanings in literary texts: The first step towards Appraisal Stylistics. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication, 29(12), 665-684.
- Ramón, E. (2011). Funnyhouse of a negro: Rejection of womanness and blackness as a “melancholic” cry. ES. Revista de FilologíaInglesa, 32, 289-308.
- Rapoo, C., &Bonno, I. (2015). African spiritual retentions and racial hybridity in Adrienne Kennedy’s plays. Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies, 29(2), 212-222.
- Tóth, G. (2013). Under the moon–images and forms of femaleness in Adrienne Kennedy’s plays. Gender Studies, 12(1), 246-263. https://doi.org/10.2478/genst-2013-0015
- Wu, H. B. (2013). Appraisal perspective on attitudinal analysis of public service advertising discourse. English Language and Literature Studies, 3(1), 55-66. https://doi.org/10.5539/ells.v3n1p55