Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
CONCEPTUAL PAPER ON THE CAUSAL EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON EXPATRIATE EFFECTIVENESS IN MALAYSIA
Corresponding Author(s) : Rick Yap Ching Iuan
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 1 (2020): January
Purpose of the study: To investigate the causal effects of expatriates’ individual differences (measured by Job Insecurity, Personality, and Social Network) on their effectiveness (measured Coping Strategies, Job Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior) in carrying out their responsibility to complete assignments whilst stationed and working in Malaysia.
Main Result: This conceptual paper will contribute to the body of knowledge on matters related to expatriates’ services in a cross-cultural and different environment, especially the difficulties they faced, roles played and contribution towards both the host country and the organization that they work for. The research gaps are on Coping Strategies is affecting the expatriate effectiveness and there are a few researches in the Malaysian context.
Applications: It is significant to resolve the problem faced by expatriates working and stationed in Malaysia. This paper is important for both current and future development for academics (for theoretical knowledge consolidation), practitioners (for multinational organizations) and the country’s economy. The contribution to the literature on expatriate is by offering new individual variables that are influencing their performance, which could be unique and still relevant to each other, and this consolidates and enriches the literature.
Novelty/Originality: This paper provides a better understanding on how the variables work on individual differences and how are they connected to effectiveness. It is also envisaged that the performance can be enhanced and multinationals will improve their profitability and thus contribute to the GDP of the country.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Ashford, S. J, Lee, C & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, causes, and consequences of Job Insecurity: A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 22. (4): p. 803-829. https://doi.org/10.2307/256569 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/256569
Austin, J. T., & Villanova, P. (1992). The criterion problem: 1917-1992. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 836-874. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.836 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.836
Badia, P, McBane., B, Suter, S., & Lewis, P. (1966). Preference behavior in an immediate versus variably delayed shock situation with and without a warning signal. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 847-852. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023867 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023867
Barrick, M. R & Mount, M. K. 1991. The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance. Personnel Psychology. Vol. 41. p. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x
Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some exploration in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a development theory of communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x
Black, J.S, Mendenhall, M & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16. (2): p. 291–317. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4278938 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4278938
Black, J.S & Stephens, G.K. (1989). The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in Pacific Rim overseas assignments. Journal of Management, Vol.15. p. 529–544. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638901500403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638901500403
Bolino, M.C. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: Good soldiers or good actors?. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24. (1): p. 82‐98. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1999.1580442 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1999.1580442
Borg, I & Elizur, D. (1992). Job insecurity: Correlates, moderators, and measurement. International Journal of Manpower. Vol.13. p. 13-26. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437729210010210 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437729210010210
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt., & W. C. Borman (ed.). Personnel selection in organizations,71-98. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10, 99–109. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_3
Bowling, N.A. 2010. Effects of job satisfaction and conscientiousness on extra‐role behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology. Vol. 25. (1): p. 119‐130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9134-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9134-0
Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S.J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11, 710 - 725. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1986.4283909 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1986.4283909
Brown, M. (1994). The Fading Charms of Foreign Fields. Management Today, August. 48-51.
Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
Caligiuri P. M. (1997). Assessing expatriate success: Beyond just being there. In Saunders DM, Aycan Z (ed.), New approaches to employee management, 4, 117-140. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette., & L. M. Hough (ed.). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed),1.
Campbell, J. P., McCloy, R. A., Oppler, S. H., & Sager, C. E. (1993). Theory of Performance. In E. Schmitt, W. C. Borman, & Associates (ed.), Personnel selection in organizations, 35–70. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Carver, C.S., & Connor-Smith, J. (2010). Personality and coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 679-704. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100352 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100352
Cheng, Y., Chen, C. W., Chen, C. J., & Chiang, T. L. (2005). Job insecurity and its association with health among employees in the Taiwanese general population. Social Science and Medicine,61. (1), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.11.039 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.11.039
Code, S., & Langan-Fox, J. (2001). Motivation, cognition, and traits: predicting occupational health, well-being, and performance. Stress and Health, 17, 159-174. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.897 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.897
Connor-Smith, J., & Flachsbart, C. (2007). Relations between personality and coping: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1080-1107. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Costa, P.T., Jr & McCrae, R.R. (1992(c)). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 4. p. 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.206 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.11
De Witte, H, Sverke, M. Van Ruysseveldt, J, Goslinga, S, Chirumbolo, A, Hellgren, J &Naswall, K. 2008. “Job insecurity, union Support and intentions to resign membership: A psychological contract perspective”. European Journal of Industrial Relationships. Vol.14. p.85-103. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959680107086113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0959680107086113
Dickman, M., & Harris, H. (2005). Developing career capital for global careers: The role of international assignments. Journal of World Business, 40, 399–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2005.08.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2005.08.007
Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. In M. R. Rosenzweig & L.W. Porter (ed.). Annual review of psychology. Vol. 41. p. 417-440. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002221 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002221
Eysenck, H. J. (1970). The structure of human personality (3rd ed.). London: Methuen.
Eysenck, H. J. (1993). Creativity and personality: A theoretical perspective. Psychological Inquiry. Vol. 4. p. 147-246. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0403_19 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0403_19
Feather, N. T., & Rauter, K. A. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviors in relation to job status, job insecurity, organizational commitment and identification, job satisfaction and work values”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 81‐94. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915928 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915928
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988b). Manual for the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/t06501-000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t06501-000
George, J. M & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work - organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 112. p. 310-329. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.310 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.310
Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In L. Wheeler (ed.), Review of personality and social psychology. Vol. 2., p. 141-166. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Granovetter, M. S. (1982). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. In P. V. Marsden & N. Lin (ed.), Social structure and network analysis. p. 105-130. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Grant, L. (1996). A comprehensive examination of the latent structure of job performance. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, North Carolina StateUniversity, Raleigh.
Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review. 9, 438-448. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1984.4279673 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1984.4279673
Hall, A., & Wellman, B. (1985). Social networks and social support. In S. Cohen., & S.L. Syme (ed.), Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.
Harrison, D. A & Shaffer, M. A. (2005). Mapping the criterion space for expatriate success: Task-based and relationship-based performance, effort and adaptation. International Journal of Human Resources Management. Vol. 16. p. 1454-1474. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500220648 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500220648
Heaney, C, Israel, B & House, J. (1994). Chronic job insecurity among automobile workers: Effects on job satisfaction and health. Social Science and Medicine. Vol. 38. (10): p. 1431–1437. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90281-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90281-X
Hobfoll, S.E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44. 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
Hogan, J & Hogan, R. (1986). Hogan Personnel Selection Series Manual. Tulsa, OK: Hogan Assessment Systems.
Hogan, J & Ones, D. S. (1997). Conscientiousness and integrity at work. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson & S. R. Briggs (ed.). Handbook of personality psychology. p. 849 – 870. New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50033-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50033-0
Huang, T.J., Chi, S.C., & Lawler, J.J. (2005). The relationship between expatriate’s personality traits and their adjustment to international assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16, 1656-1670. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500239325 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500239325
Hurtz, G. M., & Donovan, J. J. (2000). Personality and job performance: The Big Five Revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85.869–879. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.869 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.869
Jacobson, D. (1991). The conceptual approach to job insecurity. In Hartley, J., Jacobson, D., Klandermans, B., & van Vuuren, T. (ed.), Job insecurity: Coping with jobs at risk, 23-39. London: Sage.
Jex, S.M and Britt, T.W. 2008. Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, John-Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Judge, T.A & Bono, J.E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 85. (5): p. 751-765. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.751 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.751
Jung, C. G. (1923). Psychological types (H. B. Baynes, Trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Katz, D. (1964). The motivational basis of organizational behavior”. In Bowler, W.M, Halbesleben, J. R. B. and Paul, J. R. B. (2010). If you're close with the leader, you must be a brownnose: The role of leader-member relationships in the follower, leader, and coworker attributions of organizational citizenship behavior motives. Human Resource Management Review. Vol. 20. p.309–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.04.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.04.001
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Kim, Y. Y. (1987). Facilitating immigrant adaptation: The role of communication. In T.L. A. M. B. Adelman (ed.), Communicating social support. p. 192-211. Beverly Hills: Sage publications, Inc.
Kirmeyer, S. L & Lin, T.-R. (1987). Social support: Its relationship to observed communication with peers and superiors. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 30. (1): p. 138-151. https://doi.org/10.2307/255900 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/255900
Klaus, K.J. (1995). How to Establish an Effective Export Program Best Practices in International Assignment Administration. Employment Relations Today, 22(1), 59-79. https://doi.org/10.1002/ert.3910220109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ert.3910220109
Laursen, B, Pulkkinen, L & Adams, R. (2002). The antecedents and correlates of agreeableness in adulthood. Developmental Psychology. Vol. 38. p.591-603. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1681 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1241
Lazarus, R.S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lazarus, R.S. 1991. Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, R.S. (1999). Stress and emotion. New York: Springer.
Larsen, R.J., & Buss, D.M. (2010). Personality psychology: Domains of knowledge about human nature. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1991). The concept of coping. In A. Monat & R. S. Lazarus (ed.), Stress and coping: An anthology (3rd ed). p. 183-206. New York: Columbia Press. https://doi.org/10.7312/mona92982-017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7312/mona92982-017
Lee, C, Bobko, P & Chen, Z, X. (2006). Investigation of the multidimensional model of job insecurity in China and the USA. Applied Psychology. Vol. 55. p., 512-540. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00233.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00233.x
Li, L.J., and Rothstein, M. (2009). The role of social networks on expatriate effectiveness, International Journal of Business Research. Vol. 9. (2): p. 94-108.
Malaysia. (1999). Statistical Report Dated from 01/01/1998 to 31/12/1998. Kuala Lumpur: Immigration Department of Malaysia.
Malaysia. (2008). Statistical Report Dated from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2007. Kuala Lumpur: Immigration Department of Malaysia.
Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA). (2015). Malaysia investment performance report: Driving sustainable growth.
McCrae, R.R & Costa, P.T, Jr.(1989(b)). Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Personality. Vol. 57. p. 17-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00759.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00759.x
McCrae, R. R & Costa, P. T, Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 52. p. 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52
McCrae, R.R & Costa, P.T, Jr. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist. Vol. 52. p. 509-516. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.5.509 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.5.509
Morrison, E. W. (2002). Newcomers' relationships: The role of social network ties during Socialization. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 45. (6): p. 1149-1160. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069430 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/3069430
Moorman, R.H & Blakely, G.L. (1995). Individualism‐collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 16. (2): p. 127‐142. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160204
Motowidlo, S.J. (2003). Job performance, in Borman, W.C, Ilgen, D.R and Klimoski, R.J (ed). Handbook of Psychology: Industrial and Organizational Psychology. John Wiley & Sons Hoboken. NJ. p. 39-53.
Motowidlo, S. J., & Schmit, M. J. (1999). Performance assessment in unique jobs. In D. R. Ilgen., & E. D. Pulakos (ed.). The changing nature of job performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development, 56–86. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Motowidlo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance. Human Performance, 10, 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_1
Mount, M. K.,& Barrick, M. R. (1995). The Big Five personality dimensions: Implications for research and practice in human resources management. In K. M. Rowland., & G. Ferris (ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management, 13, 153-200. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Vol. 66. p. 574-583. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040291 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040291
Podolny, J. M & Baron, J. N. (1997). Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review. Vol. 62. (5): p. 673-693. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657354 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2657354
Podsakoff, P.M, and MacKenzie, S.B. (1994), Organizational citizenship behavior and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 31. (3): p. 351- 363. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379403100303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379403100303
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26 (3), 513-563. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600307 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600307
Podsakoff, N.P., Whiting, S.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & Blume, B.D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 122-141. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013079
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's constructed clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_2
Organ, D. W, Podsakoff, P. M & MacKenzie, S. B. 2006. Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. USA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Osman-Gani, A. M & Rockstuhl, T. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of social network characteristics for expatriate adjustment and performance in overseas assignments: Implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Review. Vol. 7. (1): p. 32-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484307312182 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484307312182
Rousseau, D.M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. Vol.2. p. 121-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384942 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384942
Rusting, C. L, & Larsen, R. J. (1998). Personality and cognitive processing of affective Information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 24. p. 200–213. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167298242008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167298242008
Salgado, J. F. (1997). The five-factor model of personality and job performance in the European community. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 30-43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.30
Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L.R. (2003). The structure of personality attributes. In M. Barrick., & A.M, Ryan (ed). Personality and work, 1 - 29. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Seibert, S. E, Kraimer, M. L & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 44. (2): p. 219-237. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069452 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3069452
Sekaran. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sekaran & Bougie. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. (7th ed.). Wiley, New York.
Shaffer, M. A & Harrison, D. A. (2001). Forgotten partners of international assignments: Development and test of a model of spouse adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 86. (2): p. 238-254. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.238
Sixth Malaysia Plan (SMP) 1991-1995. Report 1991/1995.
Smith, C.A., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653-663. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.4.653 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.4.653
Somech, A & Drach‐Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra‐role behavior in schools: the relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy, and teachers' extra‐role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 16. (5): p. 649‐659. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00012-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00012-3
Spector, P. 1998. “A control theory of the job stress process”. In C. Cooper (ed.), Theories of organizational stress. p. 153-169. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.
Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia (SSM). (2007 to 2015). Annual Report 2007/2015.
Sverke, M. Hellgren, J. (2002). The nature of job insecurity: Understanding employment uncertainty on the brink of a new millennium. Applied Psychology An International Review, 51, 23-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.0077z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.0077z
Sverke, M. Hellgren, J &Näswall, K. (2002). No security: a meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. Vol. 7. (3): p. 242-264. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.206 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.11
Tellegen, A & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (‘‘absorption’’), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 83. p. 268-277. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0036681 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0036681
Thau, S, Aquino, K & Wittek, R. (2007). An extension of uncertainty management theory to the self: The relationship between justice, social comparison orientation, and antisocial work behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 92. p. 250-258. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.250 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.250
Toh, S. M, Varma, A & DeNisi, A. S. (2004). Host country national helping on the adjustment of expatriates. Paper presented at the SIOP Conference, Chicago, Illinois. https://doi.org/10.1037/e518632013-438 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/e518632013-438
Turnipseed, D & Murkison, G. (1996). Organization citizenship behavior: an examination of the influence of the workplace. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. Vol. 17. p. 42–7. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739610111222 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739610111222
Van Dyne, L, Graham, J.W & Dienesch, R.M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 37. (4): p. 765‐ 802. https://doi.org/10.2307/256600 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/256600
Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2006). Compulsory citizenship behavior: theorizing some dark sides of the good soldier syndrome in organizations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior. Vol.36. (1): p. 77-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2006.00297.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2006.00297.x
Wang, X. (2001). Expatriate social support network, psychological well-being, and performance: A theoretical examination and an empirical test. McGill University, Canada.
Watson, D & Clark, L. A. (1997). Extraversion and its positive emotional core. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson, and S. R. Briggs (ed.), Handbook of personality psychology. p. 767-793. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50030-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50030-5
Wiggins, J. S, Trapnell, P, & Phillips, N. (1988). Psychometric and geometric characteristics of the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS–R). Multivariate Behavioral Research. Vol. 23. p. 517–530. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2304_8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2304_8
Williams, R.S. (2002). Managing Employee Performance: Design and Implementation in Organizations. Thompson Learning, London.
Williams, L & Anderson, S. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management. Vol. 17. p. 601-617. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700305 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700305
Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on models of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00151 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00151
Zhang, M. Y., & Dodgson, M. (2007). A roasted duck can still fly away: A case study of technology, nationality, culture and the rapid and early internationalization of the firm. Journal of World Business, 42, 336–349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.04.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.04.005