Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
EXAMINING INTERCULTURAL EXPERIENCES OF SAUDI STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PROGRAMS AT AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES
Corresponding Author(s) : Sultan Saud Althobaiti
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 1 (2020): January
Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study is to investigate Saudi student's academic, cultural, and social benefits gained through their involvement in experiential learning programs (ELPs) at higher institutions in the US.
Methodology: The study employed an interpretive qualitative design. Data collection comprised 16 individual semi-structured interviews with junior and senior Saudi male and female students enrolled in the colleges of business and engineering.
Main Findings: Findings revealed an overall level of satisfaction among participants, especially with respect to gains in academic knowledge, personal growth, and leadership skills. ELP workplace challenges largely related to the educational, social, and cultural backgrounds of the study participants. Sociocultural benefits were inconsistent, most notably regarding gender and group interactions between Saudi and American members.
Implications: Involving in such experiential Learning Programs increased potential participation in such practices for Saudi students when they go back to work in their home country after completing their study abroad.
Novelty: The study addresses ways to improve the ELP experience for Saudi students, improve EL programs for organizers, and other prospective Saudi students who decide to study in the west.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Abdel Razek, A. N. A.(2012). An Exploration of the Case of Saudi Students' Engagement, Success and Self-Efficacy at a Mid-Western American University. University of Akron.
Akanwa, E. E. (2015). International students in western developed countries: History, challenges, and prospects. Journal of International Students, 5(3), 271-284.
Al-Banyan, A. S. (1980). Saudi students in the United States: A study of cross cultural education and attitude change. London: Ithaca Press.
Al-Sharideh, K. A., & Goe, W. R. (1998). Ethnic communities within the university: An examination of factors influencing the personal adjustment of international students. Research in higher education, 39(6), 699-725. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018714125581 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018714125581
Al-Zahrani, S. S. A., & Kaplowitz, S. A. (1993). Attributional biases in individualistic and collectivistic cultures: A comparison of Americans with Saudis. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56(3), 223-233. https://doi.org/10.2307/2786780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2786780
Alalwi, F. S. (2016). Intercultural Competence Development in a Study Abroad Context: Saudi Study Abroad Learners in the United States of America.
Alfares, H. K., Al-Haboubi, M. H., & Al-Zahrani, M. M. (2013). Community service in Saudi Arabian universities: A comparative study. Journal of Community Engagement and Higher Education, 5(2), 1-9.
Alhazmi, A., & Nyland, B. (2010). Saudi international students in Australia and intercultural engagement: A study of transitioning from a gender segregated culture to a mixed gender environment. Paper presented at the 21st ISANA international education conference.Retrieved rom URL
Andrade, M. (2005). International students and the first year of college. Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 17(1), 101-129.
Astin, A. W., & Sax, L. J. (1998). How undergraduates are affected by service participation. Higher Education, 39(3), 251-263.
Astin, A. W., Vogelgesang, L. J., Ikeda, E. K., & Yee, J. A. (2000). How service learning affects students. Retrieved from Los Angeles: https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/slcehighered/144/?
Aubrey, R. (1991). International students on campus: A challenge for counselors, medical providers, and clinicians. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 62(1), 20-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/00377319109516697 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00377319109516697
Auyeung, P., & Sands, J. (1996). A cross cultural study of the learning style of accounting students. Accounting & Finance, 36(2), 261-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-629X.1996.tb00310.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-629X.1996.tb00310.x
Bhandari, R., & Blumenthal, P. (2011). Global student mobility and the twenty-first century silk road: National trends and new directions. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230117143_1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230117143_1
Boud, D., & Solomon, N. (2001). Work-Based Learning. A new higher education? Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Clements, M. D., & Cord, B. A. (2013). Assessment guiding learning: developing graduate qualities in an experiential learning programme. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 38(1), 114-124. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2011.609314 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2011.609314
Collins, L., Hannon, P. D., & Smith, A. (2004). Enacting entrepreneurial intent: the gaps between student needs and higher education capability. Education +Training, 46(8/9), 454-463. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910410569579 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910410569579
Constantine, M. G., Anderson, G. M., Berkel, L. A., Caldwell, L. D., & Utsey, S. O. (2005). Examining the cultural adjustment experiences of African international college students: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 57. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-018.104.22.168 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124
Coryell, J. E., Stewart, T., Wubbena, Z. C., Valverde-Poenie, T. C., & Spencer, B. (2016). International Service-Learning: Study Abroad and Global Citizenship. Handbook of Research on Study Abroad Programs and Outbound Mobility, 420. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-0169-5.ch017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-0169-5.ch017
Cowan, J. (2006). On becoming an innovative university teacher: Reflection in action(2 ed.). New York, NY: Open University Press.
Crabtree, R. D. (2008). Theoretical foundations for international service-learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 15(1), 18-36.
Crossman, J. E. (2011). Experiential learning about intercultural communication through intercultural communication. Internationalising a Business Communication Curriculum. Journal of Intercultural Communication(25).
Darwish, A.-F. E., & Huber, G. L. (2003). Individualism vs collectivism in different cultures: A cross-cultural study. Intercultural Education, 14(1), 47-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/1467598032000044647 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1467598032000044647
DeGiacomo, J. A. (2002). Experiential learning in higher education. The Forestry Chronicle, 78(2), 245-247.
Dorasamy, N. (2009). Diverse enterprising needs and outcomes: A case for experiential learning. Industry and Higher Education, 23(5), 405-412. https://doi.org/10.5367/000000009789711882 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/000000009789711882
Eland, A. J., Greenblatt, S. L., Smithee, M. B., &Eland, A. J. (2009). US classroom culture. Washington D.C: NAFSA, Association of International Educators.
Elwell, M. D., & Bean, M. S. (2001). Editors' choice: The efficacy of service-learning for community college ESL students. Community College Review, 28(4), 47-61. https://doi.org/10.1177/009155210102800403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009155210102800403
Eyler, J., & Giles Jr, D. E. (1999). Where's the learning in service-learning? Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series: Jossey-Bass.
Fontaine, S. J., & Todd, A. (2011). Community-based learning and the international student. Review of Higher Education & Self-Learning, 4(11), 35-44.
Gareis, E. (2012). Intercultural friendship: Effects of home and host region. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 5(4), 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2012.691525 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2012.691525
Gill, S. (2007). Overseas students' intercultural adaptation as intercultural learning: A transformative framework. Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education., 37(2), 167-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920601165512 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03057920601165512
Glass, C. R. (2012). Educational experiences associated with international students’ learning, development, and positive perceptions of campus climate. Journal of studies in international education, 16(3), 228-251. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315311426783 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315311426783
Green, M. F., Luu, D. T., & Burris, B. (2008). Mapping internationalization on US campuses(2008 ed.). Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Green, S. S., Comer, L., Elliott, L., & Neubrander, J. (2011). Exploring the value of an international service‐learning experince in Honduras. Nursing education perspectives, 32(5), 302-307. https://doi.org/10.5480/1536-5026-32.5.302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5480/1536-5026-32.5.302
Gresham, R., & Clayton, V. (2011). Community connections: A programme to enhance domestic and international students' educational experience. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management, 33(4), 363-374. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2011.585736 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1360080X.2011.585736
Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., &Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard educational review, 72(3), 330-367. https://doi.org/10.17763/h aer.72.3.01151786u134n051
Harrison, N. (2012). Investigating the impact of personality and early life experiences on intercultural interaction in internationalised universities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(2), 224-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.03.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.03.007
Hayter, C. S., & Cahoy, D. R. (2016). Toward a strategic view of higher education social responsibilities: A dynamic capabilities approach. Strategic Organization, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1476127016680564 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1476127016680564
Hinchcliff-Pelias, M., & Greer, N. S. (2004). The importance of intercultural communication in international education. International Education, 33(2), 5-18.
Hinck, S. S., & Brandell, M. E. (2000). The relationship between institutional support and campus acceptance of academic service learning. American Behavioral Scientist, 43(5), 868-881. https://doi.org/10.1177 /00027640021955522 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00027640021955522
Hunter, A. B., Laursen, S. L., & Seymour, E. (2007). Becoming a scientist: The role of undergraduate research in students' cognitive, personal, and professional development. Science education, 91(1), 36-74. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20173
Ibrahim, B. (2012). International service-learning as a path to global citizenship. In Julie A Hctcher & Robert G Bringle (Eds.), Understanding service-learning and community engagement: Crossing boundaries through research(pp. 11-21). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Illeris, K. (2007). What do we actually mean by experiential learning? Human Resource Development Review, 6(1), 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484306296828 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484306296828
Institute of International Education. (2017). Open Doors. Research & Insight. Retrieved 1232017 from https://www.iie.org/Research-and-Insights/Open-Doors/Fact-Sheets-and-Infographics/Fast-Facts
Jackson, J. (2011). Host language proficiency, intercultural sensitivity, and study abroad. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 167-188.
Jackson, L., Caffarella, R. S., & Jackson, L. B. (1994). Experiential learning: A new approach. San Francisco Jossey Bass.
Jackson, J. (2011). Host language proficiency, intercultural sensitivity, and study abroad. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 21, 167-188.
Kampman, D. (2011). From Riyadh to Portland: The study abroad experiences of five Saudi Arabian female students.(TESOL), Portland State University, Brattleboro.
Kao, C.-w., & Gansneder, B. (1995). An assessment of class participation by international graduate students. Journal of College Stduent Development, 36(2), 132-140.
Kiely, R. (2005). A transformative learning model for service-learning: A longitudinal case study. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 12(1), 5-22.
Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4(2), 193-212. https://doi.org/10.546 5/amle.2005.17268566 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2005.17268566
Kolb, D. A. (1948). Experiential learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kretovics, M. A. (2011). Business practices in higher education: A guide for today's administrators. New York, NY: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203838624 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203838624
Ladd, P. D., & Ruby Jr, R. (1999). Learning style and adjustment issues of international students. Journal of Education for Business, 74(6), 363-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832329909601712
Leong, P. (2015). Coming to America: Assessing the patterns of acculturation, friendship formation, and the academic experiences of international students at a US college. Journal of International Students, 5(4), 459-474. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832329909601712 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08832329909601712
Lewis, D. (2005). Globalisation and international service: A development perspective. Volunteering Action, 7(2), 13-26.
Lewis, L., & Williams, C. (1994). Experiential learning: Past and present. New Direction for Adult and Continuing Educatiion, 1994(62), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/ace.36719946203 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ace.36719946203
Lilia, G. L. (2017). The experietial learning impact of international and domestic study tour: Class excursions that are more than field trips. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(1), 129-144.
Ma, V., & Schoeneman, T. J. (1997). Individualism versus collectivism: A comparison of Kenyan and American self-concepts. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19(2), 261-273. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1902_7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1902_7
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2016). Designing qualitative research(6 ed.). USA: Sage Publications, Inc.
McFadden, C., Maahs-Fladung, C., & Mallett, W. (2012). Recruiting international students to your campus. Journal of International Students, 2(2), 157-167.
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Nyland, C., Forbes-Mewett, H., Marginson, S., Ramia, G., Sawir, E., & Smith, S. (2007). International Students-A Segregated and Vulnerable Workforce. Paper presented at the The 18th Annual Conference of ISANA: International Education Association, Adelaide. retrieved from http://isana.proceedings.com.au/docs/ 2007/Paper_Marginson.pdf
Obeidat, B. F., & AlKhaza'leh, M. S. (2019). Educational Experiences and perceptions of American Students toward Arab Students in the US: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Institutional Research South East Asia, 17(1).
Ogden, A. (2010). Education abroad and the making of global citizens: Assessing learning outcomes of course-embedded, faculty-led international programming.(Doctoral dissertation), The Pennsylvania State University.
Parker, B., & Altman Dautoff, D. (2007). Service-learning and study abroad: Synergistic learning opportunities. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 13(2), 40-53.
Renn, K. A., Brazelton, G. B., & Holmes, J. M. (2014). At the margins of internationalization: An analysis of journal articles on college student development, learning, and experiences, 1998–2011. Journal of College Stduent Development, 55(3), 278-294. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2014.0029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2014.0029
Roloff, M. E. (1981). Interpersonal communication: The social exchange approach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Russell, N. M. (2007). Teaching more than English: Connecting ESL students to their community through service learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(10), 770-771. https://doi.org/10.1177/003172170708801015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/003172170708801015
Stoynoff, S. (1997). Factors associated with international students' academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 24(1), 56-68.
The National Survey of Student Engagement. (2018). A Pocket Guide to Choosing a College: NSSE 2018 Answers from Students. Retrieved 09/12/2018 from http://nsse.indiana.edu/2018_Institutional_Repo rt/pdf/NSSE18%20Pocket%20Guide%20Report%20(NSSEville%20State).pdf
Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York, NY: Wiley.
Trice, A. G. (2004). Mixing it up: International graduate students' social interactions with American students. Journal of college student development, 45(6), 671-687. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2004.0074 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2004.0074
Unruh, S., & Obeidat, B. F. (2015). Adjusting to Learning in the US: Saudi Students Speak Out. Journal of Higher Education Theory & Practice, 15(4).
Valentine, D., & Cheney, R. S. (2001). Intercultural business communication, international students, and experiential learning. Business Communication Quarterly, 64(4), 90-104. https://doi.org/10.1177 /108056990106400410 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/108056990106400410
Welch, M. (1999). The ABCs of reflection: A template for students and instructors to implement written reflection in service-learning. Evaluation/Reflection, 25(2), 22-25.
Wildavsky, B. (2012). The great brain race: How global universities are reshaping the world. New Jersy, NJ: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400842001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400842001
Wilson, J., Brain, R., Brown, E., Gaind, L., Radan, K., & Redmond, J. (2016). Interdisciplinary study abroad as experiential learning. Comparative and International Education, 45(2), 1-17.
Yan, K., & Berliner, D. C. (2013). Chinese international students' personal and sociocultural stressors in the United States. Journal of college student development, 54(1), 62-84. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2013.0010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2013.0010
Ying, Y. W. (2002). Formation of cross‐cultural relationships of Taiwanese international students in the United States. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(1), 45-55. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.1049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.1049
Youn, I. (2000). The culture specificity of epistemological beliefs about learning. Asian journal of social psychology, 3(1), 87-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00056 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-839X.00056
Zhao, C.-M., Kuh, G. D., & Carini, R. M. (2005). A comparison of international student and American student engagement in effective educational practices. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(2), 209-231. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2005.11778911 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2005.11778911