This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content.
EXPLORING THE ABSENCE OF WATCHDOG JOURNALISM IN NIGERIA BROADCAST MEDIA
Corresponding Author(s) : Maryam Abdu Gainaka
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 1 (2020): January
Purpose of the study: The research became necessary to explore the watchdog role of broadcast media in Nigeria. The study was conducted for the purpose of understanding how broadcast media interpret the watchdog function and the reason for its rarity in Nigeria broadcast media.
Methodology: The study used the qualitative case study approach. Two broadcast media were purposively selected for the study-FRCN and AIT. Semi-structured face to face interview was used to collect data from ten informants comprising of senior editors and field reporters who were purposively selected for the study. Researchers used thematic analysis for data analysis to interpret and discuss findings.
Main findings: The broadcast media perform the watchdog role through reporting of investigations not initiated by them and also through their programs. The absence of watchdog in their media is influenced by the interference of broadcast media owners, enormous economic and commercial pressures on them being a more capital intensive media as well as the failure of broadcast media practitioners to explore the freedom of information Act like their print counterparts do.
Application/Implication: The findings offer a reference point for media regulatory bodies to discover broadcast media issues that are useful for making regulations to improve media practice. It contributes to the call for media social responsibility by providing insight into the impediments of fulfilling the media’s social obligation as a watchdog.
Novelty/originality: Research in the area of media watchdog role and functions have often focused on audience perceptions and evaluations of print media. This study explored broadcast media and added to the conceptualization of the concept of media as watchdog beyond investigative journalism only.
- Adeniyi, A. (2016). Media, military and democratic struggles in Nigeria: Tensions and contentions. New media and mass communication. 47(1), 16-21.
- Agbo, B. O., &Chukwuma, O. (2017). Influence of the New Media on the Watchdog Role of the Press in Nigeria. European Scientific Journal,13(2), 126-140. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n2p126
- Aginam, A. M. (2010). Media and democratization in Nigeria: State, capital and civil society. (Doctoral thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada). Retrieved from http://summit.sfu.ca/system/files/i ritems1/11542/etd6409_AAginam.pdf
- Akeem, R. A., Oyeyinka, O. T., Qasim, A. O., Lateef, O., Omolayo, J., &Onyinyechi, N. (2013). Deregulation of broadcast media in Nigeria: An appraisal. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. 33(2452), 1-8.
- Akinfeleye, R. A. (2003). Fourth estate of the realm or fourth estate of the wreck: Imperative of Social responsibility of the press. Inaugural lecture, delivered at the University of Lagos, Nigeria.
- Akinwale, A.A. (2010). Repression of press freedom in Nigerian democratic dispensations. African Development, 35(3), 47-70. https://doi.org/10.4314/ad.v35i3.70207
- Ali A (2015). Media ownership and control versus press freedom in a democratic Africa. Journal of Mass Communication and Journalism, 5(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.4172/2165-7912.1000239
- Amodu, L. O., Usaini, S., &Ige, O. (2014). The media as fourth estate of the realm. ResearchGate. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19311.02720
- Amodu, L. O., Yartey, D., Ekanem, T., Oresanya, T., &Afolabi, O. (2016, May, 9-11). Assessing the media’s watchdog role in ensuring the accountability of the Nigerian government. Paper presented at the third international conference on African Developmental Issues, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. Retrieved from http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/id/eprint/8214
- Apata, K. &Ogunwuyi, O. (2019). Media social responsibility and the problematics of investigative journalism among media professionals in Osun state, Nigeria. Journal of Mass Communication and Information Technology, 5(3), 1-22.
- Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
- Christians, C.G, Glasser, T. L., McQuail, D., Nordenstreng, K. & White, R. A. (2009). Normative Theories of the Media journalism in democratic societies. Chicago, USA: University of Illinois Press.
- Chukwu, J.O., (2018). The press and freedom of information in Nigeria and the United States of America: An analysis. International Journal of Law and Society, 1(1), 24-33. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijls.20180101.14
- Coronel, S. (2010). Corruption and the watchdog role of the news media. In P. Norris (Eds), Public Sentinel: News Media and Governance reform, (pp.111-136). Washington, DC, USA: World Bank.
- Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. (4thed.). Boston, USA: Pearson.
- Endong, F.P. (2017). Watchdogging versus adversarial journalism by state owned media: The Nigerian and Cameroonian experience. International Journal of English, Literature and Social Sciences, 2(2), 8-17.
- Ismail, A, Ahmad, M. K., &Mustaffa, C.S. (2014, October 18-20). Conceptualization of Investigative Journalism: The perspectives of Malaysian Media Practitioners. Paper presented at the International Conference on Communication and Media, Langkawi, Malaysia. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S1877042814057401
- Jibo, M. &Okoosie-Simbine (2003). The Nigerian media: An assessment of its role in achieving transparent and accountable government in the fourth republic. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 12(2), 180-195.
- Kunia, S. S. & Othman, S. S. (2019). Investigative reporting pattern of tempo weekly news magazine. Humanities and Social Science Reviews, 7(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.713
- Kur, J.T. &Nyekwere, O. (2015). Television broadcasting and the democratization process in Nigeria: The successful and unsuccessful story. Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 5(4), 116-146. https://doi.org/10.29333/ojcmt/2529
- Maguire, M. & Delahunt, B. (2017). Doing a thematic analysis: A practical, step by step guide for learning and teaching scholars. AISHE-J, 3(1), 3351-33514.
- McQuail, D. (2010). McQuails Mass Communication Theory (6th Ed). Los Angeles, USA: Sage.
- Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass
- Munoriyarwa, A. (2018). Have they got news for us? The decline of investigative reporting in Zimbabwe’s print media. Communication: South African Journal for Communication theory and research, 44(1), 71-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/02500167.2018.1441888
- Ngwu, O.L. (2015). Influence of Ownership on Professional Journalism practice in Nigeria: A study of EBBC, Ebonyi and Dream FM, Enugu. (Masters Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria). Retrieved from https//dspace.unn.edu.ng/bitstream/handle/123456789/4540?=full
- Norris, P. &Odugbemi, S. (2010). Assessing the Extent to Which the News Media Act as Watchdogs, Agenda Setters and Gatekeepers. In P. Norris (Eds), Public Sentinel: News Media and Governance Reform (pp. 379-394). Washington DC, USA: World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-8200-4
- Oberiri, D. A. (2016). An evaluative study of the freedom of information act on journalism practice in Nigeria. New media and mass communication, 53(1), 11-22.
- Oberiri, A. D., (2017). Exploring the extent of press freedom in Nigeria. International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, 3(2), 28-31.
- Odunlami, D., &Adaja, T. (2015). Media commercialization, public interest and sustainable development in Nigeria. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development. 8(10), 69-78.
- Ojo T. (2007). The Nigerian media and the process of democratization. Journalism, 8(5), 545-550. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884907081049
- Ojo, E. O. & Adebayo, P. F. (2013). Many ‘sins’ of the mass media in Nigeria: A critical appraisal of the media in a decade of nascent democracy. Journal of Media and Communication Studies, 5(8), 95-102. doi: 10.5897/JMCS09.010
- Ojomo, O.W. (2009). An assessment of broadcast media’s role in the political development of Nigeria. Retrieved fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/320558795
- Omojola, O. (2010). Mass media interest and corruption in Nigeria. Unilag Communication Review, 4(2), 21-38.
- Onyemaobi, J. K. (2018). The role of the press in emerging democracies: An analysis of Newspaper coverage of political Violence and Corruption in Nigeria (Doctoral thesis, University of Leicester, England, UK). Retrieved from https://lra.le.ac.uk/handle/2381/42492
- Oso, L. (2013). Media and democracy in Nigeria: A critique of the liberal perspective. New Media and Mass Communication, 10(1), 13-22.
- Pinto, J. (2008). Muzzling the watchdog: the case of disappearing watchdog journalism from Argentine mainstream news. Journalism, 9(6), 750-774. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884908096244
- Shardow, M. S., &Asare, B. E. (2016). Media ownership and independence: Implications for democratic governance in the fourth republic of Ghana. Journal of Pan African Studies, 9(9), 179-199.
- Spiess, M. (2011). From Watchdog to Lapdog? The Impact of Government Intimidation on the Public Watchdog Performance of Peace Media in processes of Democratization (Masters Thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, Uk) Retrieved from http://www.lse.ac..uk/colle ctions/media@lse/mediaworkingpapers/
- Waisbord, S. (2000). Watchdog journalism in South America: News, Accountability, and Democracy. New York, USA: Columbia University Press.
- Waisbord, S. (2015). Watchdog Journalism. In G. Mazzoleni (Ed) The International Encyclopedia of Political Communication (Ist Ed, pp. 1-5). John Wiley & Sons inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118541555.wbiepc046
- Yeoh, A. L. S. (2011). The watchdog role of a journalist in a politically corrupt nation: A case study of Malaysian journalists. (Bachelor Thesis, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rashid, Malaysia). Retrieved from http://eprints.utar.edu.my/231/1/PR-2011-0806554-4.pdf
- Yin, R.K. (2018). Case study research and application: Designs and methods (6thed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
- Yusha'u, M.J. (2009). Investigative Journalism and Scandal Reporting in the Nigerian Press. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 30(2), 155-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/02560054.2009.9653400