TRACING THE ARMENIAN DESCENDANTS AND SELF-IDENTITY: AN ANALYSIS OF CAN THESE BONES LIVE?
Corresponding Author(s) : Muhammad Nasir
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study demonstrated how Armenian Massacres as crime fiction developed in response to finding their identity by tracing the ethnic criminal or heritage against their descendants. Besides, by looking at this genocide against the Armenian racial, I found it increasingly difficult to ignore the link between self-identity and the race criminalization conducted by the authority
Methodology: In this study, the writer implemented New Historicism theory by looking at the historical background, and combined with Horney Psychoanalysis of Personality, through the activities conducted by the characters. Then, through analyzing the plot and the whole story, the writer found that self-awareness of those characters could be seen in different forms and cultures. Based on those theories that people who know themselves will know what they think, feel, and believe; they will be able to take responsibility for themselves and be able to determine their values by reflecting their personality
Main Findings: Self-identity and Armenian descendants could be portrayed significantly, and they were very appropriate with the identity of the characters shown in the texts. Here, the writer also found that a novelist like Tom Frist (2015) used the backdrop of massacres to write about the inner lives of Turkish criminals. He focused directly on the narrative dilemmas posed by American Armenian. His work attempted to uncouple race from crime, and this writer showed us how massacres fiction became a necessary identity form for American Armenian who lived as migration and diaspora.
Applications of this study: So, the study of Armenian descendants was not only useful for a literary critic but also presented the history and ethnic cleansing in Turkey. And through this analysis, we learned more about the bitter experiences faced by deportees as shown in the setting places and the author’s perspective.
Novelty/Originality of this study: Finally, I believed that tracing the Armenian descendants and self-identity was fascinating by identifying the characters shown in the novel.
- Akçam, T. (2011). The Chilingirian murder: A case study from the 1915 roundup of Armenian intellectuals. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 25(1), 127-143. https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcr001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcr001
- Alwani, Z. (2013). Muslim women as religious scholars: A historical survey. In E. Aslan, M. K. Hermansen, & E. Medeni (Eds.), Muslima theology: The voices of Muslim women theologians (pp. 45-58). Peter Lang.
- Aslan, E., Hermansen, M. K., & Medeni, E. (Eds.). (2014). Muslima theology: The voices of Muslim women theologians.Peter Lang. https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-03238-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-03238-3
- Balakian, P. (2013). Raphael Lemkin, cultural destruction, and the Armenian genocide. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 27(1), 57–89. https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dct001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dct001
- Butt, A. I. (2017). The Ottoman Empire’s escalation from reforms to the Armenian Genocide, 1908-1915. In A. I. Butt (Ed.), Secession, and Security: Explaining state strategy against separatists (pp. 125–162). Cornell University Press.
- Chessick, R. D. (1994). Visions of the self. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 54(3), 265–273. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02741922 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02741922
- Derderian-Aghajanian, A. (2009). Armenians’dual identity in Jordan. International Education Studies, 2(3), 34-41. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v2n3p34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v2n3p34
- Feierstein, D. (2014). Genocide as social practice: Reorganizing Society under the Nazis and Argentina’s Military Juntas. Rutgers University Press. https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_625248 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26530/OAPEN_625248
- Fittante, D. (2015). Beyond the analytical categories of Armenian Identity. Journal of the Society for Armenian Studies, 24, 56–80.
- Fluck, W. (2013). The “ Americanization “ of history in New Historicism. Monatshefte, 84(2), 220–228.
- Frist, T. (2015). Can these bones live?A novel of the Armenian massacres of 1915 and ISIS today. iUniverse.
- Furlanetto, E. (2017). Imaginary spaces: Representations of Istanbul between topography and imagination.In E. Furlanetto (Ed.), Towards Turkish American literature narratives of multiculturalism in Post-Imperial Turkey (pp. 49-114).Peter Lang. https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-07229-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-07229-7
- Galip, Ö. B. (2016). The politics of remembering: Representation of the Armenian genocide in Kurdish novels. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 30(3), 458–487. https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcw063 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcw063
- Garrick, J. (1997). Self-analysis. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 27(1), 96–97. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295
- Gitelson, M. (2014). Self-analysis by Karen Horney. Social Service Review,16(3), 552–556. https://doi.org/10.1086/634119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/634119
- Gocek, F. M. (2015). Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present, and collective violence against the Armenians, 1789-2009. Oxford University Press.
- Gunn, J.S., Arnold, K.T., &Freeman, E.S. (2015). The dynamic self-searching for growth and authenticity: Karen Horney’s contribution to humanistic psychology. Academy Forum, 59(2), 20–22.
- Hickling, M. (2008). New historicism. Brock Education Journal, 27(2), 435–443. https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v27i2.577 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26522/brocked.v27i2.577
- Horowitz, M. J. (2012). Self-identity theory and research methods. Journal of Research Practice, 8(2), 1–11.
- Jarman, N., & Hamilton, M. (2009). Protecting peaceful protest: The OSCE/ODIHR and freedom of peaceful assembly. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 1(2), 208–235. https://doi.org/10.1093/jhuman/hup011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jhuman/hup011
- Kaes, A. (2016). New historicism.Writing Literary History in the Postmodern Era, 84(2), 148-158.
- Kasbarian, S. (2016). The Istanbul Armenians: Negotiating coexistence. In R. Bryant (Ed.), Post-Ottoman coexistence: Sharing space in the shadow of conflict (pp. 207–237). Berghahn Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1kgqw2h.13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1kgqw2h.13
- Kévorkian, R. H. (2017). Earth, fire, water, or how to make the Armenian corpses disappear. In É. Anstett & J.-M. Dreyfus (Eds.), Destruction and human remains (pp. 89-116).Manchester University Press.
- Krok-schoen, A. J. L., Palmer-wackerly, A. L., Dailey, P. M., Krieger, J. L., Krok-schoen, B. J. L., & Palmer-wackerly, A. L. (2016). The conceptualization of self-identity among residents of Appalachia Ohio. Journal of Appalachian Studies,21(2), 229–246. https://doi.org/10.5406/jappastud.21.2.0229 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5406/jappastud.21.2.0229
- Kurt, Ü. (2018). Reform and violence in the Hamidian era: The political context of the 1895 Armenian massacres in Aintab. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 32(3), 404-423. https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcy048
- Lennox, S. (2015). Feminism and new historicism. Monatshefte, 84(2), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcy048 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/hgs/dcy048
- Maksudyan, N. (2016). Agents or pawns?Nationalism and Ottoman children during the Great War. Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association, 3(1), 139-164. https://doi.org/10.2979/jottturstuass.3.1.09 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2979/jottturstuass.3.1.09
- Mardiganian, A. (1918). Ravished Armenia: The story of Aurora Mardiganian, the Christian girl, who survived the Great Massacres.Kingfield Press, Inc.
- Maza, S. (2004). Stephen Greenblatt, new historicism, and cultural history, or, what we talk about when we talk about interdisciplinarity. Modern Intellectual History, 1(2), 249–265. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1479244304000149 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1479244304000149
- Mazza, R. (2016). Book review: A Land of Aching Hearts, The Middle East in the Great War by Leila Tarazi Fawaz. War in History, 23(2), 267–268. https://doi.org/10.1177/0968344515621809g DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0968344515621809g
- Mills, A. (2005). Narratives in city landscapes: Cultural identity in Istanbul.Geographical Review, 95(3), 441-462. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1931-0846.2005.tb00375.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1931-0846.2005.tb00375.x
- Morrissey, S. K. (2013). Mapping civilization: The cultural geography of suicide statistics in Russia. Journal of Social History, 46(3), 651–667. https://doi.org/10.1093/jsh/shs131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jsh/shs131
- Osipian, A. (2013). The usable past in the Lemberg Armenian Community’s struggle for equal rights, 1578-1654. In E. Kuijpers, J. Pollmann, J. Müller, & J. van der Steen (Eds.), Memory before modernity: Practices of Memory in Early Modern Europe(pp. 27-44). Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004261259_003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004261259_003
- Pamuk, O. (1990). The black book. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
- Pamuk, O. (1994). The new life. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
- Payne, C. (2012). A question of humanity in its entirety: Armin T. Wegner as an intermediary of reconciliation between Germans and Armenians in Interwar German Civil Society. In B. Schwelling (Ed.), Reconciliation, civil society, and the politics of memory: Transnational initiatives in the 20th And 21st century (pp. 25-50). Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. https://doi.org/10.14361/transcript.9783839419311.25 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14361/transcript.9783839419311.25
- Peifer, D. (2008). Genocide and airpower. Strategic Studies Quarterly, 2, 93-124.
- Ransom, J. C. (1979). The new criticism. New Directions.
- Reiss, T. J. (1992). Mapping identities: Literature, nationalism, colonialism.American Literary History, 4(4), 649–677. https://doi.org/10.1093/alh/4.4.649 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/alh/4.4.649
- Sandberg, K. (2018). Motherhood has gone wrong: Failure as resistance in Twenty-First Century Swedish literature. Contemporary Women’s Writing, 12(3), 83-100. https://doi.org/10.1093/cww/vpy004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cww/vpy004
- Saunders, R., & Avagyan, S. (2010). (Un)disciplining traumatic memory: Mission orphanages and the afterlife of genocide in Micheline Aharonian Marcom’s the daydreaming boy. Contemporary Women’s Writing, 4(3), 197-219. https://doi.org/10.1093/cww/vpp036 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cww/vpp036
- Schacher, Y. (2013). Refugees and restrictionism Armenian women immigrants to the USA in the post-World War I era. In M. Schrover, & D. M. Moloney (Eds.),Gender, migration, and categorization: Making distinctions between migrants in western countries, 1945-2010 (pp. 55-74). Amsterdam University Pres.
- Shafak, E. (2006). The bastard of Istanbul. Viking Press.
- Sharma, R., Howard, J., Pechter, E., Montrose, L. A., Miller, U. C., & Diego, S. (2014). New historicism: An intensive analysis and appraisal. Irwle, 10 (II), 1-11.
- Shweder, R. A. (1991). Thinking through cultures. Harvard University Press.
- van den Daele, L. (1981). The self-psychologies of Heinz Kohut and Karen Horney: A comparative examination. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 41(4), 327–336. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01258946 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01258946
- Ziolkowski, E. J. (1998). History of religions and the study of religion and literature: Grounds for the alliance. Literature and Theology, 12(3), 305–325. https://doi.org/10.1093/litthe/12.3.305 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/litthe/12.3.305