PLAGIARISM AMONG JUNIOR LECTURERS IN INDONESIA: HOW AND WHY?
Corresponding Author(s) : Zulfadli A. Aziz
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Purpose of the study: Lecturers of public universities in Indonesia are encouraged to publish articles in internationally reputable journals frequently. Due to their workload and tight schedule, they may be tempted to copy some or part of their works. This study aimed at investigating the reasons for young lecturers on plagiarism in English academic writing.
Methodology: A quantitative method was used to describe and explain the phenomenon of the junior lecturers’ plagiaristic conduct. A set of questionnaires was used as the instrument to obtain the data. The data were collected from 82 young lecturers who were attending an English intensive program at the Language Centre of Syiah Kuala University, the oldest and biggest university in the province of Aceh.
Main Findings: The results show a contradiction between junior lecturers’ awareness of their practical behavior. Their high awareness of plagiarism was not a benchmark from the misconduct or plagiarism. Surprisingly, the findings show some of the junior lecturers were intentionally plagiarizing by paying more professional writers to finish their articles. They also copied the whole source or part of it to produce better writing work. Finally, lack of consequences and lack of ability in academic writing are the major reasons why young lecturers plagiarized.
Applications of this study: This study applies to the area of English Teaching and Learning. However, it does not rule out the possibility that the study result applies to other fields of study.
Novelty/Originality of this study: Moreover, the study result might be useful for readers’ conceptual development because there is very little research related to lecturers’ plagiaristic behavior, especially in Indonesia. A more in-depth investigation can be obtained and tested using this study result.
- Abasi, A. R., Akbari, N. & Graves, B. (2006). Discourse appropriation, construction of identities, and the complex issue of plagiarism: ESL students writing in graduate school. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15, 102-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2006.05.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2006.05.001
- Ali, W. Z., Ismail, H., & Cheat, T. T. (2012). Plagiarism: To what extent it is understood? Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59: 604-611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.320
- Ammari, E. H. (2010). Cyber plagiarism and the digital revolution: A Cornucopia of Bona-vacantis? Journal of Language and Literature, 4, 4-16.
- Amsberry, D. (2010). Deconstructing plagiarism: International students and textual borrowipractic sces. Reference Librarian, 51(1), 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/02763870903362183 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02763870903362183
- Bakhtiyari, K., Salehi, H., Embi, M. A., Shakiba, M., Zavvari, A., Shahbazi-Moghadam, M., Ebrahim, N. A., Mohammadjafari, M. (2014). Ethical and unethical methods of plagiarism prevention in academic writing. International Education Studies, 7(7), 52. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n7p52 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v7n7p52
- Bosch, X., & Ross, J. S. (2012). Ghostwriting: Research misconduct, plagiarism, or fool’s gold? The American Journal of Medicine, 125(4), 324–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.07.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.07.015
- Bouville, M. (2008). Plagiarism: Words and ideas. Science and Engineering Ethics, 14(3), 311–322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-008-9057-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-008-9057-6
- Cheak, A., Yeow, J. A., Cheah, C. S., & Min, C. M. (2013). Internet plagiarism: University students’ perspective. International Research Conference (pp. 1-5). Pearl International, Kuala Lumpur.
- Dawson, M. M., & Overfield, J. A. (2006). Plagiarism: Do students know what it is? Bioscience Education Journal, 8(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3108/beej.8.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3108/beej.8.1
- Dordoy, A. (2002). Cheating and plagiarism: Student and staff perceptions at Northumbria. Proceedings of the Northumbria Conference - Educating for the Future (pp.1-6). Northumbria University, Newcastle.
- Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: A pedagogical perspective. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 507–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930701698918 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930701698918
- Eret, E., & Gokmenoglu, T. (2010). Plagiarism in higher education: A case study with prospective academicians. Procedia - Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2(2), 3303–3307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.505 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.505
- Fish, R., & Hura, G. (2013). Students’ perceptions of plagiarism. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(5), 33-45.
- Flowerdew, J., & Li, Y. (2007). Plagiarism and second language writing in an electronic age. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 27, 161-183. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190508070086 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190508070086
- Howard, R. M. (1992). A plagiarism pentimento. Journal of Teaching Writing, 11(2), 233-245.
- Hu, G., & Sun, X. (2017). Institutional policies on plagiarism: The case of eight Chinese universities of foreign languages/international studies. The system, 66, 56–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.015
- Johns, A., & Mayes, P. (1990). An analysis of summary protocols of university ESL students. Applied Linguistics, 11, 253–271. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.3.253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.3.253
- Kayaoğlu, M. N., Erbay, Ş., Flitner, C., & Saltaş, D. (2015). Examining students’ perceptions of plagiarism: A cross-cultural study at the tertiary level. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 40(5), 682–705. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2015.1014320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2015.1014320
- Maurer, H., Kappe, F., & Zaka, B. (2006). Plagiarism - A survey. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 12(8), 1050-1084.
- McCabe, D. L., Trevino, L. K., & Butterfield, K. D. (2001). Cheating in academic institutions: A decade of research. Ethics and Behavior, 11(1), 219-232. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327019EB1103_2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327019EB1103_2
- Mohammed, R. A. A., Shaaban, O. M., Mahran, D. G., Attellawy, H. N., Makhlof, A., & Albasri, A. (2015). Plagiarism in medical scientific research. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 10(1), 6–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2015.01.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2015.01.007
- Molnar, K. K., Kletke, M. G., & Chongwatpol, J. (2008). Ethics vs. IT ethics: Do undergraduate students perceive a difference? Journal of Business Ethics, 83(4), 657–671. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9646-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9646-3
- Mustafa, F. (2019). “I think it is not plagiarism”: How little do Indonesian undergraduate EFL students understand plagiarism? Asian EFL Journal, 21(2), 74–91.
- Mustafa, F., & D’Auria, P. T. (2019). Differences in vocabulary, clauses, and voices in published academic articles written by native and non-native speakers of English. Asian ESP Journal, 15(1), 297–319.
- Norris, R. W. (2007). Dealing with plagiarism at a Japanese university: A foreign teacher’s perspective. The East Asian Learner, 3(1), 1–20.
- Nunan, D. (2003). Practical English language teaching. Mc-Graw Hill Education.
- Nur, H. G., & Sofi, Y. (2019). A correlational study of students’ speaking competence and writing competence and the impact on students’ performance in English. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(3), 362–373. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7354 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7354
- Park, C. (2003). In other (people’s) words: Plagiarism by university students—Literature and lessons. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(5), 471-488. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930301677 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02602930301677
- Park, C. (2004). Rebels without a clause: Towards an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism by students. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 28(3, 91-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877042000241760 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877042000241760
- Perry, B. (2010). Exploring academic misconduct: Some insights into student behavior. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11(2), 97-108. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787410365657 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787410365657
- Rahmawati, L. E., Suwandi, S., Saddhono, K., & Setiawan, B. (2019). Need analysis on the development of writing competency test for foreign university students. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(3), 467-471. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7368 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7368
- Ramzan, M., Munir, M. A., Siddique, N., & Asif, M. (2012). Awareness about plagiarism amongst university students in Pakistan. Higher Education, 4, 73–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9481-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-011-9481-4
- Rolfe, V. (2011). Can Turnitin be used to provide instant formative feedback? British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), 701–710. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01091.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01091.x
- Ryan, G., Bonanno, H., Krass, I., Scouller, K., & Smith, L. (2009). Undergraduate and postgraduate Pharmacy students’ perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(6), 105. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7306105 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7306105
- Shaw, P., & Pecorari, D. (2013). Source used in academic writing: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 12(2), A1–A3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2012.11.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2012.11.001
- Shi, L., Fazel, I., & Kowkabi, N. (2018). Paraphrasing to transform knowledge into advanced graduate student writing. English for Specific Purposes, 51, 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2018.03.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2018.03.001
- Silfiani. (2018). Plagiarism in English academic writing: Students’ perceptions. (Master’s thesis). Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh.
- Sun, Y. C. (2012). Does text readability matter? A study of paraphrasing and plagiarism in English as a foreign language writing context. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21(2), 296–306.
- Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. B. (2012). Academic writing for graduate students: Essential tasks and skills (3rd ed.). Michigan ELT. https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.2173936 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.2173936
- Swear, M. A., & Kalajahi, S. A. R. (2019). Evaluative functions of reporting verbs in the introductions of master theses. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(6), 139–142. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7628 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7628
- Yamada, K. (2003). What Prevents ESL/EFL writers from avoiding plagiarism? Analyses of 10 North-American college websites. The system, 31(2), 247–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(03)00023-X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(03)00023-X