JOKOWI VS PRABOWO: THE POLITENESS AND ITS VIOLATION IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION OF INDONESIAN PRESIDENT CANDIDATES
Corresponding Author(s) : Adnan
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Purpose of the study: The study aims are to investigate levels of language politeness and its violations in the political communication of Jokowi and Prabowo and to describe the types of politeness and its violations in political communication of Jokowi and Prabowo as Indonesian president candidates in 2019.
Methodology: This research was used a qualitative approach with the descriptive method by paying attention to the Interactive Model theory to describe the object in analysis data through a pragmatic approach to identify the politeness principles and its violation following Leech’s (1983) theory. The subject of data on this research has conducted the utterances of Indonesian president candidates 2019 in the second debate session.
Main Findings: The result of the study can be concluded that five principles of politeness seen in the utterances of the presidential candidate. They are tact, approbation, modesty, agreement, and sympathy maxim. Furthermore, in this research, Prabowo was more polite than Jokowi where he has produced utterances of approbation, agreement, and less violation of modesty, while Jokowi more violated the modesty maxim.
Applications of this study: The study has an impact on political behavior. Other areas of study include social and political science and communication
Novelty/Originality of this study: This research is the new way in the context of language politeness study where combined the language politeness principles with socio-political science especially political communication.
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- Ida Muliawati, Nyak Mutia Ismail, Lismalinda, Budi Rizka, TEST-TAKING ANXIETY AMONG EFL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN TOEFL TEST: A CASE STUDY FROM INDONESIAN CONTEXT , Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews: Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
- Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education, 8th ed. Wadsworth.
- Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2012). Formulas, routines, and conventional expressions in pragmatics research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 32(1), 206–227. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190512000086
- Behnam, B., & Niroomand, M. (2011). An investigation of Iranian EFL learners’ use of politeness strategies and power relations in disagreement across different proficiency levels. English Language Teaching, 4(4), 204-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v4n4p204
- Bousfield, D. (2008). Impoliteness in interaction. John Benjamins Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.167
- Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085
- Crystal, D. (Ed.). (1997). The Cambridge encyclopedia of language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Culpeper, J., Bousfield, D., & Wichmann, A. (2003). Impoliteness revisited: With special reference to dynamic and prosodic aspects. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(10-11), 1545-1579. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00118-2
- Edwards, D. (2005). Moaning, whinging, and laughing: The subjective side of complaints. Discourse Studies, 7(1), 5-29. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605048765
- Grundy, P. (2000). Doing pragmatics. Oxford University Press.
- Gusthini, M., Sobarna, C., & Amalia, R. (2018). A pragmatic study of speech as an instrument of power: analysis of the 2016 USA Presidential Debate. Studies in Language and Education, 5(1), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v5i1.6906
- Haugh, M. (2007). The discursive challenge to politeness research: An interactional alternative. Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture, 3(2), 295-317. https://doi.org/10.1515/PR.2007.013
- Leech, G. (1983). The principles of pragmatics. Longman Inc.
- Leech, G. (2014). The pragmatics of politeness. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195341386.001.0001
- Mey, J. L. (2001). Pragmatics: An introduction (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publishing.
- Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Method Sourcebook (3rd Ed.). New York: Sage Publications.
- Moleong, L. J. (2007). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif [Qualitative research methods]. Remaja Rosdakarya.
- Norris, P. (2004). Political communications. Harvard University.
- Nuolijarvi, P., & Tittula, S. (2011). The irony in political television debates. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(2), 572-587. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.019
- Peterson, M. A. (2015). Speaking of news: Press, democracy, and metapragmatic in a changing India. American Ethnologist: Journal of American Ethnological and Society, 4(42), 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1111/amet.12163
- Rizka, B., & Zainuddin. (2016). Lexical change with reference to social contact among the speakers of Pase Dialect. Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa, 10(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.24036/ld.v10i1.6296
- Rizka, B. (2017). Lexical process of Acehnese borrowing. Getsempena English Education Journal, 4(1), 17-26.
- Sameer, I. (2017). Analysis of speech act patterns in two Egyptian inaugural speeches. Studies in English Language and Education, 4(2), 137-147. https://doi.org/10.24815/siele.v4i2.7271
- Santoso, B., & Djauhari, M. A. (2019). Indonesian 2019 General Election: Who will be the future leader? Global Media Journal, 17(32), 1-5.
- Santoso, D. (2019). Empan papan ‘agree with the setting and speech event’ as reflected in the politeness strategies used in The Parliament of Yogyakarta. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviewers, 7(3), 195-199. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7330
- Sharif, T. I. S. T., Noor, M. Y. M., & Omar, S. R. (2019). Politeness in online communication: Retailer-client interaction. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviewers, 7(2), 233-239. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2019.7226
- Traverso, V. (2009). The dilemmas of third-party complaints in the conversation between friends. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(12), 2385-2399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.047
- Wardhaugh, R., & Fuller, J. M. (2015). An introduction to sociolinguistics (7th ed). Blackwell.
- Yasmeen, R., Jabeen, M., & Akram, A. (2014). Politeness and the language of Pakistani Politicians. SAVAP International: Academic Research International, 5(3), 245-253.
- Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford University Press.
- Zasko-Zielinska, M. (2014). Apologizing: How genre affects the changes in the speech act. International Journal of Language and Literature, 2(3), 69–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.15640/ijll.v2n3a5