Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
MIDDLE EAST LINK OF TERRORIST THREATS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF PESANTREN IN INDONESIA: CASE STUDY IN THE AREA OF MALANG
Corresponding Author(s) : Gonda Yumitro
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Purpose of the study: This article elaborates on the perspective of pesantren towards the Middle East link of the terrorist threat in Indonesia and their notion on the policies conducted by the Indonesian government, especially in the area of Malang.
Methodology: This research is qualitative research by in-depth interviews, literature reviews, and focus group discussion (FGD) collecting data methods. The objects of this research were several pesantren leaders from different backgrounds such as Al Irsyad, Hidayatullah, Muhammadiyah, the Muslim Brotherhood, Nahdatul Ulama (NU), and Salafi. The data were analyzed using Nvivo 12 Plus and discussed with various literature reviews to perform the finding.
Main Findings: The pesantren considers that increasing cooperation between state agencies and groups that are judged as having a link to sources for radical ideology in the Middle East would help minimize the problem of radicalism and the threat of terrorism in Indonesia, especially in the Malang area. Therefore, in assessing and deciding various policies on Islamic terrorism, the government needs to consider the Islamic discourse as not to be misled by public opinion.
Applications of this study: This study is helpful for the government to evaluate its policies to face the issues of terrorism by understanding the Middle East link of terrorism in Indonesia based on the perspective of pesantren. Moreover, ina terrorism study, this article can be a reference source to analyze the issues.
Novelty/Originality of this study: The growing terrorism in Indonesia is often associated with pesantren as these institutions are assumed to have the potency of supporting radicalism. Moreover, they have an ideological and network connection with the Islamic movements in the Middle East. On the other hand, pesantren is claimed to be a means of spreading peaceful Islam and is ready to cooperate with the government in handling the issue of terrorism in Indonesia.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
- Arifin, Z., & Rohmah, L. (2019). The concept of leadership of the transnational Islamic ideology perspective and responses to democratic practices in Indonesia. Akademika: Jurnal Pemikiran Islam, 24(1), 213–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.32332/akademika.v24i1.1474
- Azra, A. (2006). Islam in the Indonesian world: an account of institutional formation. Mizan Pustaka.
- Baskara, B. (2017). Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia as transnational movements. DINIKA : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies, 2(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.22515/dinika.v2i1.103 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22515/dinika.v2i1.103
- Bayman, H. (2003). The secret of Islam: love and law in the religion of ethics (first edition). North Atlantic Books;
- Brown, L. C. (1984). International Politics and the Middle East: Old Rules, Dangerous Game. I B Tauris & Co Ltd.https://doi.org/10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim220030046 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_SIM220030046
- Fealy, G. (2004). Islamic radicalism in Indonesia: the faltering revival?Southeast Asian Affairs, 2004, 104–121. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789812306944-010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1355/9789812306944-010
- Goodrich, J. N. (2002). September 11th, 2001 attack on America: a record of the immediate impacts and reactions in the USA travel and tourism industry. Tourism Management, 23(6), 573–580. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00029-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00029-8
- Hamilton-Hart, N. (2005). Terrorism in Southeast Asia: expert analysis, myopia, and fantasy. Pacific Review, 18(3), 303–325. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512740500188845 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09512740500188845
- Harahap, H. I., Irmayani, T., & Lubis, F. H. (2019). The rationality of de-radicalization efforts for the children of terrorists at al-hidayah Islamic boarding school. International Journal of Islamic Thought, 16, 38–50. https://doi.org/10.24035/ijit.16.2019.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24035/ijit.16.2019.004
- Jamil, M., Jauhari, I., & Dahlan. (2019). The response of the pesantren community toward the ideology of Islamism: a study of pesantren teachers' perception in north Sumatra. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 10(2), 204–223. https://jsser.org/index.php/jsser/article/view/722/376
- Jones, L. (2016). Explaining the failure of the ASEAN economic community: the primacy of the domestic political economy. Pacific Review, 29(5), 647–670. https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2015.1022593 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09512748.2015.1022593
- Joseph, B., & Liow, C. (2014). Liow 2014. ISIS goes to Asia: extremism in the middle east isn't only spreading west. Foreign Affairsffairs, September, 1–4. https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/140921_ISIS_Goes_to_Asia_Foreign_Affairs.pdf
- Jurdi, S. (2008). Pemikiran politik islam indonesia: pertautan negara, khilafah, masyarakat madani, dan demokrasi. Pustaka Pelajar.
- Kilcullen, D. J. (2005). Countering global insurgency. Journal of Strategic Studies, 28(4), 597–617. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402390500300956 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01402390500300956
- Lim, M. (2011). Radical Islamism in Indonesia and it's middle eastern connections. Middle East Review of International Affairs (Online); Herzliya, 15(2), 31–41. https://search.proquest.com/docview/920317892/citation/6B4B4863ADE64B8APQ/1
- Machmudi, Y. (2008). Islamising Indonesia: the rise of Jemaah tarbiyah and the prosperous justice party (PKS). ANU E Press. https://doi.org/http://doi.org/10.22459/II.11.2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22459/II.11.2008
- Malik, A. (2017). Stigmatisation of islamic school: pesantren, radicalism and terrorism in bima.Ulumuna, 21(1), 173–210. https://doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v21i1.1159 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v21i1.1159
- Mubah, A. S. (2012). Teroris versus globalisasi: perlawanan jaringan jamaah islamiyah terhadap hegemoni amerika. Cakra Studi Global Strategis.
- Oak, G. S. (2010). Jemaah Islamiyah's fifth phase: the many faces of a terrorist group. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33(11), 989–1018. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2010.514697 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2010.514697
- Omar, I. (2011). Keeping shari'a and reclaiming jihad. Political Theology, 12(5), 706–712. https://doi.org/10.1558/poth.v12i5.706 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/poth.v12i5.706
- Osman, S. (2010). Jemaah Islamiyah: of kin and kind. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 29(2), 157–175. https://doi.org/10.1177/186810341002900205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/186810341002900205
- Posner, P. L. (2002). Combating terrorism: an intergovernmental partnership in a national strategy to enhance state and local preparedness. General Accounting Office.
- Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding terror networks. University of Pennsylvania Press. https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812206791 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812206791
- Schmid, A. P. (2015). Challenging the Narrative of the Islamic State. ICCT Research Paper, The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.19165/2015.1.05 DOI: https://doi.org/10.19165/2015.1.05
- Sodiq, I., & Astuti, T. M. P. (2019). Radicalism: the santri pespective in rural java.Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 313(ICoRSIA 2018), 67–71. https://doi.org/10.2991/icorsia-18.2019.17 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2991/icorsia-18.2019.17
- Solansky, S. T., & Beck, T. E. (2009). Understanding interagency collaboration in cyber-terrorism exercises. Administration & Society, 40(8), 852–875. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399708326345 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399708326345
- Sopyan, Y., Syarif, M. I., & Rais, I. (2019). Measuring human rights and Islamic of Indonesian anti-terrorism law. Ahkam, 19(2), 229–246. https://doi.org/10.15408/ajis.v19i2.13898 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15408/ajis.v19i2.13898
- Sukma, R. (1998). Soft power and public diplomacy: the case of Indonesia. In L. SJ& M. J (Eds.), Public Diplomacy and Soft Power in East Asia (Issue October 2002, pp. 91–115). Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230118447_6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230118447_6
- Taufiqurrohman, M. (2015). The road to isis: how Indonesian jihadists travel to Iraq and Syria. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 7(4), 17–25. www.jstor.org/stable/26351346
- Tumanggor, R. E. (2007). Indonesia' s counter-terrorism policy. Revista UNISCI, October(15), 87–110. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/767/76701506.pdf
- Valbjørn, M., & Bank, A. (2012). The new Arab cold war: rediscovering the Arab dimension of middle east regional politics. Review of International Studies, 38(1), 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210511000283 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210511000283
- Vaughn et al, B. (2005). Terrorism in Southeast Asia. http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA444939
- Yumitro, G., Kurniawati, D. E., Saiman, S., & Haffsari, P. P. (2019). The Modalities and Roles of Pesantren To Face the Issues of Terrorism in the Region of Malang. MIQOT: Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman, 43(1), 95. https://doi.org/10.30821/miqot.v43i1.646 DOI: https://doi.org/10.30821/miqot.v43i1.646