This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
MONOPHTHONGISATION OF ENGLISH DIPHTHONGS /aɪ/, /eɪ / and /Ͻɪ/ BY NATIVE SPEAKERS OF PASHTO
Corresponding Author(s) : Liaqat Iqbal
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021): May
Purpose of the study: Phonological variation in diphthongs, when spoken as a second or foreign language, is an accepted phenomenon. The diphthongs of English when pronounced by native speakers of Pashto go through certain changes and sometimes, monophthised. The purpose of the present study is to investigate phonological variation, i.e., monophthongisation of English diphthongs.
Methodology: For this purpose, 20 Pashto speakers of both soft and hard dialects were taken and they were asked to pronounce the words having the target diphthongs at initial, medial and final position, followed and preceded by voiced and voiceless sounds. PRAAT was used to analyze the data to measure the possible variations in the sounds.
Main Findings: The findings show that the phenomenon of monophthongisation of English diphthongs is common in the speaking of native speakers of Pashto. The study further shows that there is the lengthening of some of the sounds and deletion as well in certain contexts. This makes the variety of English spoken by the native speakers of Pashto a separate variety.
Applications of this study: This study has applications for English language learners and teachers. The learners and teachers of English can benefit from this research and they can work on the problematic diphthongs that are usually monophthised. In this way, these sounds can be practised and the problems can be rectified.
Novelty/Originality of this study: This is an original study where the problematic diphthongs have been considered and researched that how these English diphthongs are monophthised by the native speakers of Pashto making it a distinctive feature of the native Pashto speakers of English.
Azad (2013). English recolonizes Pakistan: The impact of the globalization of Englishon Pakistani education. American University of Sharjah.
Baumgardner, R. J. (1993). The English language in Pakistan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hussain, Q. & Mehmood, A. (2012). Phonological make-up of English loanwords incorporated into Punjabi via Urdu. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3 (5). https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.5.838-843 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.5.838-843
Kachru, Y. and Nelson, L. C. (2006). Asian Englishes today: World Englishes in Asian Contexts. Hong Kong University Press.
Kachru. B., B. (1986). Model of World Englishes. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/kachru_1 985_model_of_world_Englishes
Kachru, Y. and Smith, L. E. (2008). Cultures, contexts, and world Englishes, World Englishes, 28 (1). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.01566.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2008.01566.x
Kadengi, M. (2009). African Englishes: The Indigenization of English Vowels by Zimbabwean Native Shona Speakers. (153.165) Department of Linguistics, University of the Witwatersrand Amos.
Lorenson (1991). The great vowel shift: Its rules, and its evaluation as a natural process. [Unpublished doctoral thesis, Swathmore College]. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10066/10710
Mahmood, A. (2012). Exploration of forms and functions of Tag Questions in Pakistani English. Language in India. 12
Mahboob, A. (2009). English as an Islamic language: a case study of Pakistani English. World Englishes. 28 (2), 175-189. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2009.01583.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2009.01583.x
Moosmüller, S. (1997). Diphthongs and the Process of Monophthongisation in Austrian German: A First Approach. Acoustic Research Department. Austrian Academy of Sciences Vienna, Austria. https://fliphtml5.com/liuu/oeky/basic
Mousa, A. (2015). Acquisition of the Closing Diphthongs /əʊ/ and /eɪ/ in English L2and Jamaican Creole: A Comparative Study. 1-15. http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm
Pillai, S. (2014). The monophthongs and diphthongs of Malayasian English Peter Lang AG, International Academic Publishers, Bern New York. Oxford.
Rehman, G., Khan, A. Q. and Bukhari, N. H. (2012). English Problematic Consonants for Pashto speakers. 2 (1), 685-704, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.
Riaz, M. (2015). Pakistani English: Deviant pronunciation of Englsih words by uneducated native Punjabi speakers. Journal of Second and Multiple Language Acquisition. 3 (2), 23-33. JSMULA University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan.
Talat, M. (2002). Forms and functions of English in Pakistan. Bahauddin Zakria University Multan.
Utulu, D., C. (2014). Monophthongisation and Vowel Lengthening Processes in Educated Urhobo English: A Moraic Account. Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.
Watt, D. (2003). Phonetic Variation in two Tyneside Vowel: Levelling in Lockstep. ICPhS99,1621-1624.UK: University of Leeds.
Weeks, S. (1996). Embracing English. Retrieved from http://www.com/Embracing-English/Weeks.