This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
UTILIZATION OF REMITTANCES ON HOUSE CONSTRUCTION: GROUND REALITIES AT VILLAGE KHOHAR DISTRICT GUJRAT, PUNJAB PAKISTAN
Corresponding Author(s) : Majid Hussain Alias Ghalib Hussain
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 9 No. 3 (2021): May
Purpose of the study: This study aims to find out local perception for utilization of remittances on the construction of luxurious houses in Village Khohar. Further, it aims to document the causes of international migration from this village. This study focuses on the chain migration from Pakistan to South Africa and to highlights the socio-economic status attached with showoff wealth through the construction of luxurious houses.
Methodology: For this study qualitative anthropological research methods including in-depth interviews; informal discussions; and focused group discussions were used to collect empirical data. For this study, 23 migrants were selected through purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were conducted from the selected population for which a semi-structured interview guide was used.
Main Findings: There is a history of migration from this village, residents of the village migrate and financially contribute to their left-behind families. The migrants spent billions of rupees on the construction of luxurious houses in which their left-behind family members live a comfortable life. The geographical and environmental reasons are important factors for international migration.
Applications of this study: This study can help academicians, researchers, demographic experts, financial planners as well as policymakers to understand the factors associated with international migration along with the local perceptions about showoff wealth through the utilization of remittances. This study will also be valuable for the remittances beneficiary countries like Pakistan.
Novelty/Originality of this study: Wealth is a symbol of status in traditional areas of Pakistan. The showoff wealth is associated with prestige. This topic is novel in terms of traditional and cultural practices for the utilization of wealth (remittances) on the construction of luxurious houses. The subject of this study was underexplored in the context of Pakistan in terms of the symbolic relationship between prestige and construction of luxurious houses.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Alonso, J. A. (2011). International Migration and Development: A review in light of the crisis. In CDP Background Papers (No. 011; CDP Background Papers). United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs. https://ideas.repec.org/p/une/cpaper/011.html
Brettell, C. B. (2013). Theorizing Migration in Anthropology: The Social Construction of Networks, Identities, Communities, and Globalscapes. In Migration Theory: Talking Across Disciplines (3rd Edition, pp. 113–159). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203950449 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203950449
Campbell, B. C., & Crawford, M. H. (2012). Perspectives on human migration: Introduction. In Causes and Consequences of Human Migration: An Evolutionary Perspective, 1–8, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139003308.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139003308.002
Chaudhuri, J. R. (1993). Migration and Remittances: Inter-Urban and Rural-Urban Linkages (First edition). SAGE Publications Pvt. Ltd. https://www.amazon.com/Migration-Remittances-Inter-Urban-Rural-Urban-Linkages/dp/0803994583
Cohen, J. H. (2011). Migration, Remittances, and Household Strategies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40(1), 103–114. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-081309-145851 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-081309-145851
Crawford, M. H., & Campbell, B. C. (Eds.). (2012). Causes and Consequences of Human Migration: An Evolutionary Perspective, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139003308 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139003308
Dash, R. K. (2020). Impact of Remittances on Domestic Investment: A Panel Study of Six South Asian Countries. South Asia Economic Journal, 21(1), 7–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1391561420903199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1391561420903199
Egger, E.-M., & Litchfield, J. (2019). Following in their footsteps: An analysis of the impact of successive migration on rural household welfare in Ghana. IZA Journal of Development and Migration, 9(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40176-018-0136-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40176-018-0136-4
Faist, T. (2016). Cross-Border Migration and Social Inequalities. Annual Review of Sociology, 42(1). https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-081715-074302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-081715-074302
GCIM. (2005). Migration in an interconnected world: New directions for action (No. 1; p. 98). Global commission on international migration. https://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/policy_and _research/gcim/GCIM_Report_Complete.pdf
Haas, H. D., & Plug, R. (2006). Cherishing the Goose with the Golden Eggs: Trends in Migrant Remittances from Europe to Morocco 1970–2004. International Migration Review, 40(3), 603–634. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00031.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2006.00031.x
Hall, T. D., & Kardulias, P. N. (2010). Human Migration over Millenia: A World Systems View of Human Migration, Past and Present. In Mass Migration in the World System: Past, Present and Future, 1st Edition, 22–37, Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Mass-Migration-in-the-World-system-Past-Present-and-Future/Jones-Mielants/p/book/9781594518140
Holmes, S. M. (2016). Fresh Fruit, Broken Bodies: Migrant Farmworkers in the United States. University of California Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt7zw45x
Imran, K., Devadason, E. S., & Cheong, K.-C. (2017). Construction of Household-Based Human Development Index: New District-Level Evidence for Punjab, Pakistan. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2903790 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2903790
Imran, K., Devadason, E. S., & Cheong, K.-C. (2018). Do Migrant Remittances Reduce Poverty? Micro-Level Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 55(1), 19–47. https://doi.org/10.22452/MJES.vol55no1.2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22452/MJES.vol55no1.2
Imran, K., Devadason, E. S., & Kee Cheok, C. (2019). Developmental Impacts of Remittances on Migrant-Sending Households: Micro-Level Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of South Asian Development, 14(3), 338–366. https://doi.org/10.1177/0973174119887302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0973174119887302
Józsa, I., & Vinogradov, S. A. (2017). MAIN MOTIVATION FACTORS OF HUNGARIAN LABOR-MIGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. Journal of Management, 1(31), 47–52.
Kanayo, O., Anjofui, P., & Stiegler, N. (2019). Push and Pull Factors of International Migration: Evidence from Migrants in South Africa. Journal of African Union Studies, 8(2), 219–250. https://doi.org/10.31920/2050-4306/2019/8n2a12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31920/2050-4306/2019/8n2a12
Kapur, D. (2004). Remittances: The New Development Mantra? G-24 Discussion Paper Series, 34.
Kaur, B., Singh, J. M., Garg, B. R., Singh, J., & Singh, S. (2011). Causes and Impact of Labour Migration: A Case Study of Punjab Agriculture. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 24, 459–466.
Khan, S., Sajid, M. R., Gondal, M. A., & Ahmad, N. (2009). Impacts of Remittances on Living Standards of Emigrants’ Families in Gujrat-Pakistan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 12(2), 205–215.
Khan, S., Sajid, R., Gondal, M., & Hafeez-ur-Rehman. (2012). Why do people migrate? An investigation of the major factors behind international migration from kharian to norway. In Revisiting Migration Issues in Pakistan: A Collection of Research Articles (1st ed., pp. 16–31). LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265210481_WHY_DO_PEOPLE_MIGRATE_AN_INVESTIGATI ON_OF_THE_MAJOR_FACTORS_BEHIND_INTERNATIONAL_MIGRATION_FROM_KHARIAN_TO_NORWAY
Khan, Z., Rabbi, F., Ahmad, M., & Siqun, Y. (2019). Remittances inflow and private investment: A case study of South Asian economies via panel data analysis. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 32(1), 2723–2742. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2019.1655464 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2019.1655464
Levy, B. L., Mouw, T., & Daniel Perez, A. (2017). Why Did People Move During the Great Recession?: The Role of Economics in Migration Decisions. The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences: RSF, 3(3), 100–125. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2017.3.3.05 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2017.3.3.05
Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A., & Taylor, J. E. (1993). Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal. Population and Development Review, 19(3), 431–466. https://doi.org/10.2307/2938462 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2938462
Meyer, D., & Shera, A. (2017). The impact of remittances on economic growth: An econometric model. EconomiA, 18(2), 147–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ.2016.06.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ.2016.06.001
Mulder, C. H. (2018). Putting family centre stage: Ties to nonresident family, internal migration, and immobility. Demographic Research, 24, 1151–1180. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2018.39.43 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2018.39.43
Oberai, A. S., & Singh, H. K. M. (1984). Causes and Consequences of Internal Migration: A Study in the Indian Punjab. Oxford University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Causes-Consequences-Internal-Migration-Indian/dp/0195616324
Odorige, C. E. (2016). The Dark Side of Migration Remittances and Development: The Case of Edo Sex Trade in Europe. Pécs Journal of International and European Law, 1, 18–31.
O’rourke, D. H. (2012). Why do we migrate? A retrospective. In Causes and Consequences of Human Migration: An Evolutionary Perspective (pp. 1–8). Cambridge University Press. https://www.researchgate.net/publicati n/288472910_Why_do_we_migrate_A_retrospective
Osella, F., & Osella, C. (2000). Migration, Money and Masculinity in Kerala. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 6(1), 117–133. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.t01-1-00007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.t01-1-00007
Shen, J., & Xu, W. (2016). Migration and Development in China: Introduction. China Review, 16(3), 1–7.
Tegegne, A. D., & Penker, M. (2016). Determinants of rural out-migration in Ethiopia: Who stays and who goes? Demographic Research, 35(34), 1011–1044. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2016.35.34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2016.35.34
The News. (2020, July 13). Overseas Pakistanis sent record remittances in FY20 at $23.12bn: SBP. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/686173-overseas-pakistanis-sent-record-remittances-in-fy20-at-2312bn-sbp
Thomas, M. J., Stillwell, J. C. H., & Gould, M. (2016). Modelling the duration of residence and plans for future residential relocation: A multilevel analysis. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41(3), 297–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12123 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12123
Wadood, S. N., & Hossain, M. A. (2017). Microeconomic impact of remittances on household welfare: Evidences from Bangladesh. Business and Economic Horizons (BEH), 13(1), 10–29. https://doi.org/10.15208/beh.2017.02 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15208/beh.2017.02