Main Article Content
Purpose of the study: The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of influence of the nonmonetary factors on the psychological empowerment of the employees.
Methodology: Quantitative design was employed in this study. A total of 290 frontline employees in lodging facilities were surveyed using a convenience sampling method during the data gathering. It used frequency counts, percentage, mean, and Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) in the data analysis to describe perceptions and examine the predictive power of the factors to psychological empowerment.
Main Findings: Nonmonetary factors can influence the psychological empowerment of employees in lodging organizations. It reveals that variation in the rating of psychological empowerment is explained by the factors namely: nature of work, operating procedures, promotions, and supervision.
Applications of this study: The findings of this study are beneficial primarily to hospitality organizations in designing effective empowerment programs for its employees which enables them to foster a positive organizational culture in the long run. Future researchers can use this study as one of the references in studying organizational behaviors in the hospitality industry.
Novelty/Originality of this study: This study provides an in-depth analysis of the nonmonetary factors to psychological empowerment of employees in lodging sectors using quantitative approaches.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. IJMIER is SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
- Ambad, S. N., & Bahron, A. (2012). Psychological empowerment: the influence of organizational commitment among employees in the construction sector. The Journal of Global Business Management, 8 (2), 73-81.
- Chang, C. H., Johnson, R. E., & Lord, R. G. (2010). Moving beyond discrepancies: The importance of velocity as a predictor of satisfaction and motivation. Human Performance, 23, 58–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959280903400226
- Chebat, J.C. & Kollias, P. (2000), “The impact of empowerment on customer-contact employees’ role in service organizations”, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 66-82.
- Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988), “The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13 No. 3, pp. 471-82.
- De Hauw, S., & De Vos, A. (2010). Millennials’ career perspective and psychological contract expectations: does the recession lead to lowered expectations? Journal of Business & Psychology, 25(2), 293-302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9162-9
- Elnaga, A. A., & Imran, A. (2014). The impact of employee empowerment on job satisfaction: theoretical study. American Journal of Research Communication, 2(1), 13–26. https://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2016.651
- Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2015). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the US Federal Bureaucracy: A self-determination theory perspective. American review of Public Administration, 45(4), 375–401. https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074013507478
- Fong, K. H., & Snape, E. (2015). Empowering leadership, psychological empowerment and employee outcomes: Testing a multi-level mediating model. British Journal of Management, 26, 126-138. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12048
- Hamed, S. S. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of employee empowerment. Management Review: An International Journal. 5 (1), 64-94.
- Hochwälder, J., & Brucefors, A. (2006). A psychometric assessment of a Swedish translation of Spreitzer's empowerment scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 46. 521-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00484.x
- Kaifi, B. A., Nafei,W. A., Khanfar, N. M., & Kaifi, M. M. (2012). A multi-generational workforce: managing and understanding millennials. International Journal of Business & Management, 7 (24), 88-93. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v7n24p88
- Kara, D. (2012) Differences in Psychological Empowerment Perception of Female Employees Working in Hospitality Industry. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 12(4), 436-443. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2012.12.4.6416
- Kraimer, M., & Seibert, S., & Liden, R. (1999). Psychological empowerment as a multidimensional construct: A test of construct validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, (59) 127-142.
- King, G. (1986). How not to lie with statistics: Avoiding common mistakes in quantitative political science. American Journal of Political Science, 30, 666-687. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164499591009
- Kinicki, J., McKee-Ryan, M., Schriesheim, A. and Carson, P. (2002) "Assessing the construct validity of the Job Descriptive Index: A review and meta-analysis", Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1) pp. 14-32. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.87.1.14
- Laschinger, H., Finegan, J., Shamian, J. & Wilk, P. (2001). Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: Expanding Kanter’s model. The Journal of nursing administration. 31. 260-72. https://doi.org/1097/00005110-200105000-00006
- Laškarin Ažić, M. (2017). The impact of hotel employee satisfaction on hospitability performance. Tourism and Hospitality Management, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 105-117. https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.23.1.8
- Lee, J. J., & Ok, C. M. (2015). Drivers of work engagement: An examination of core self-evaluations and psychological climate among hotel employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 44, 84–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.10.008
- Lussier, R. (2002). Human relations in organization, 5th Edition: McGraw-Hill companies.
- Meyerson, G., & Dewettinck, B. (2012). Effect of empowerment on employees performance. Advanced Research in Economic and Management Sciences, 2, 40-46.
- O'Brien, J. L. (2011). Relationships among structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and burnout in registered staff nurses working in outpatient dialysis centers. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 38(6).
- Onditi, A. (2013). Relationship between customer personality, service features and customer loyalty in the banking sector: A survey of banks in Homabay County, Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 4 No. 15.
- Quinn, R E., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1997). The road to empowerment: Seven questions every leader should consider. Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 37-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(97)90004-8
- Rehman, K., Rehman, R., Saif, N., Khan, A., Nawaz, A., & Rehman, S. (2013). Impact of job satisfaction on organisational commitment: A theoretical model for academicians in HEI of developing countries like Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting and Finance and Management Sciences, 3(1):80-89.
- Robbins S., & Judge T. (2012). Organizational behavior. 15th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Saif, N., & Saleh, A. S. (2013). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction in Jordanian hospitals. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(16), 250-257.
- Spector, P. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes and Consequences. London: Sage Publications.
- Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Dimensions, Measurement, and Validation. The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 1442-1465. https://doi.org/10.2307/256865
- Stewart, J. G., McNulty, R., Griffin, M. T. Q., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Psychological empowerment and structural empowerment among nurse practitioners. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22, 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2009.00467.x.
- Tetik, N. (2016). The effects of psychological empowerment on job satisfaction and job performance of tourist guides. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Science, 6 (2). https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v6-i2/2026
- Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An "Interpretive" Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 666-681
- Tubbs, S, & Moss, M. (2000). Human communication, 8th Edition: McGraw-Hill.