Main Article Content
Purpose of the study: The empowerment of local communities is currently an interesting issue in tourism development. This study aims to examine the forms of involvement of local communities in Lake Toba and to analyze their level of participation. This research begins by identifying the tourism potential of Lake Toba through the attribute theory of tourist destinations (attraction, accessibility, amenities, accommodation, and ancillary service).
Methodology: Multi-method approaches are used to examine this phenomenon. The qualitative method is conducted by non-participant observation in research locations to see the locals’ behavior in Lake Toba in terms of the acceptance of tourism activities. The quantitative method is conducted by distributing questionnaires with 90 randomly chosen respondents (local communities) regarding their perspective toward their participation in tourism development. The collected data will be processed and combined and will also be studied using Arnstein’s model as the main measuring instrument in discussing the level of local community participation in the destination.
Main Findings: The result of this research is that Lake Toba has the potential to attribute tourist destinations on the 5A system. In terms of the level of local community participation, the community response to its involvement in tourism-destination attributes in Lake Toba can be categorized in the “partnership” phase.
Applications of this study: The results of this study may be used as evaluation material regarding the local communities’ participation in Lake Toba on tourism destination development. The findings of this study may also be a reference for community-based tourism development in other destinations, to be oriented towards the effectiveness of active participation of local communities.
The originality of the study: The paper is original, and this is the first study to examine the level of local communities’ participation in Lake Toba.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal.
- Anon. (2017). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2017 Edition, Tourism Market Trends.
- Anon. (2015). “BPS Toba Samosir Badan Pusat Statistik”. https://tobasamosirkab.bps.go.id. BPS
- Anon. (2016). “pembangunan destinasi pariwisata prioritas 2016 Kementerian”. Kemenpar.
- Anon. (2016). “Siaran Pers: Kemenpar Siapkan Tenaga Rescue Wisata Danau Toba”. Kemenpar. www.kemenpar.go.id/asp/detil.asp?c=16&id=3513
- Arcana, K. T. P. (2014). Correlation between the impacts of mice tourism and the destination image through the implementation of sustainable event management concept in Nusa Dua Resort, Bali. Thesis, L’universited’ Angers, France. 7-8.
- Arcana, K. T. P., & Wiweka, K. (2015). The Impact of Managing Sustainable Event and the Contribution to the Formation of Destination Image at Nusa Dua Resort, Bali. Jurnal Ilmiah Hospitality Management, 6(1), 43-48.
- Arcana, K. T. P., & Wiweka, K. (2015). The Potential Development of Community Based Tourism at Ambengan Village, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism, 1(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.22334/jbhost.v1i1.14
- Arcana, K. T. P., & Wiweka, K. (2016). The Perception of Local Community Toward Tourist Accommodation Development, Case Study: Village of Seminyak, Bali. Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism, 2(1), 442-457. https://doi.org/10.22334/jbhost.v2i1.79
- Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225
- BPS. (2016). Statistik Indonesia 2016 (Indonesian statistics). Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik.
- BPS. (2017). Badan Pusat Statistik Sumatera Utara.
- BPS. (2019). Berita Resmi Statistik Perkembangan Pariwisata dan Transportasi Nasional Oktober 2019. http://www.kemenpar.go.id/post/data-statistik-informasi-khusus Retrieved December 19th 2019
- Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management, 21(1), 97-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00095-3
- Cooper, C. et al. (1993). Tourism Principles and Practice. England: London, Longman.
- Doxey. (1975). A causation theory of resident visitor irritants. In The Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings of the Travel Research Association, pp. 195–8.
- Gabito, O. A. (2013, October). Growing rural employment through community-based tourism. 12th National Convention on Statistics (NCS), EDSA Shangri-La Hotel, Mandaluyong City.
- Goeldner, Charles R., and Brent Ritchie, J.R. (2009). Tourism Principles, Practice, and Philosophies. Eleventh Edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- López-Guzmán, T., Sánchez-Cañizares, S., & Pavón, V. (2011). Community-based tourism in developing countries: A case study. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 6(1), pp. 69-84.
- Johnson, P. A. (2010). Realizing rural community-based tourism development: Prospects for social economy enterprises. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 5(1/2), 150-162.
- Jonker, J., & Pennink, B. W. (2010). Looking at research. In the essence of research methodology (1–19). Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-71659-4_1
- Kemenpar. (2016). Siaran Pers Festival Danau Toba 2016. http://www.kemenpar.go.id/post/siaran-pers-festival-danau-toba-2016.
- Mensah, C. (2012). Residents’ perception of socio-economic impacts of tourism in Tafi Atome, Ghana. Asian Social Science, 8(15), 274. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v8n15p274
- Okazaki, E. (2008). A community-based tourism model: Its conception and use. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(5), 511–529. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159594
- Sakti, Guntur. (2019). Siaran Pers: Rakornas Pariwisata III Bahas Pegembangan 5 Destinasi Super Prioritas. http://www.kemenpar.go.id/post/siaran-pers-rakornas-pariwisata-iii-bahas-pegembangan-5-destinasi-super-prioritas.
- Suriya, K. (2010), July. Impact of community-based tourism in a village economy in Thailand: An analysis with VCGE model. In EcoMod2010 conference, Istanbul, Turkey.
- Wardani, M. P., & Nasution, N. A. (2016). Kontribusi Pengembangan Pariwisata Danau Toba Melalui Skema Bop (Badan Otorita Pariwisata) Bagi Masyarakat di Sekitar Danau Toba.
- Wiweka, K., & Arcana, K. (2016, May). The impact of tourist accommodation development toward the socio-cultural aspects in the Seminyak village, district of Kuta, regency of Badung, Bali (in Perspective of the Local Community). In Asia Tourism Forum 2016-the 12th Biennial Conference of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Asia. Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/atf-16.2016.32
- Wiweka, K., Indrajaya, T., Wachyuni, S. S., Adnyana, P. P., & Hanorsian, A. E. (2019). Opportunities and Challenges for the Development of Sustainable Tourism Attraction at Batu Kapal Beach, Central Maluku Lilibooi Village. Advances in Research, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.9734/air/2019/v19i330121