Main Article Content

Abstract

Purpose of this study: Growth in the tourism sector helps in the reduction of poverty, maintenance of macroeconomic equilibrium by creating employment opportunities, earning foreign currencies, reduction of excessive dependence on a foreign country for their own development, reduction of the deficit of the current account of the balance of payment, etc. This study aims to acquaint deeply with the relationship between tourism and development so that we can check complexities, gaps, comparability, and the sustainability of impact on each other.


Methodology: Secondary sources of data are used in this descriptive research.


Main findings of my study: There is a symbiotic relationship between tourism and development and one cannot be separated from others and both are the causes of each other. From the empirical study of different countries with the co-integration method, it is proved that tourism has always been positively related to development.


Applications of my study: The study will be helpful to students, research scholars, different government & nongovernmental officials who are interested in any activities relating to tourism, environment and economy, academicians, environmentalists, tourists, and anyone interested in knowing the symbiotic relationship between tourism and development.


Novelty/Originality of this study: The novelty of the study lies in the hardness of finding such litterateurs, which are directly related to finding the symbiotic relations between tourism and development. The relations between the two are not one way or simple, there are many other factors like environment, externality, the spillover effect of government activities, etc. that affects the relationship. In this study, I tried to take all of this together to study the symbiotic relationship between tourism and development.

Keywords

Tourism Economic Growth Development Sustainable Tourism Macroeconomic Equilibrium

Article Details

How to Cite
Devi, K., & Upadhyay, V. (2020). AN INVESTIGATION OF SYMBIOTIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 7(1), 82-86. https://doi.org/10.18510/ijthr.2020.719

References

  1. Anup K.C., Rijal, K., Sapkota, R.P. (2015). Role of ecotourism in environmental conservation and socio-economic development in the Annapurna conservation area, Nepal. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 22:3, 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1005721
  2. Anup K.C., Rijal, K., Sapkota, R.P. (2015). Role of ecotourism in environmental conservation and socio-economic development in the Annapurna conservation area, Nepal. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 22:3, 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1005721
  3. Bramwell, B. (1993). Tourism and the environment: challenges and choices for the 1990s. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 61-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669589309450702
  4. Baines, G. B. K. (1977). The Environmental Demands of Tourism in Coastal Fiji. In: Winslow, J. (ed.), The Melanesian Environment, pp. 448-457. Australian National Univ. Press, Canberra.
  5. Bramwell, B., Lane, B. (2010). Sustainable tourism: an evolving global approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580208667149
  6. Brunt, P., Courtney, P. (1999). Host perceptions of socio-cultural impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(3), 493-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00003-1
  7. Budowski, G. (1976). Tourism and Environmental Conservation: Conflict, Coexistence, or Symbiosis. Environmental Conservation, 3 (1), 27-31. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892900017707
  8. Comeiro N., Strozzi F.(2019).Tourism and its economic impact: A Literature review using bibliometric tools. Tourism economics, 15(1).109-131. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816618793762
  9. Dorji, T., (2001). Sustainability of tourism in Bhutan. J. Bhutan Stud, 3, 84-104.
  10. Butler, R.W. (1999). Sustainable tourism: A state-of-the-art review. Tourism Geographies. An International Journal of Space, Place, and Environment, 1(1), p. 7-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616689908721291
  11. Catlin, J., Jones, R., Jones, T. (2011). Revisiting Duffus and Dearden’s wildlife tourism framework. Biological Conservation, 144(5), p. 1537-1544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.01.021
  12. Crittendon, A. (1975). Tourism's terrible toll. International Wildlife, 5(2), 4-12.‏
  13. Dowling, R. (1993). An Environmentally-based Planning Model for Regional Tourism Development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 17-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669589309450698
  14. Doxey, G. V. (1975). A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: Methodology and research inferences. In Travel and tourism research association’s sixth annual conference proceedings (pp. 195-98).
  15. Department of Tourism, Thimphu, (2004). International Tourism Monitor, Kingdom of Bhutan.
  16. Fennell, D. A., Dowling, R. K. (Eds.). (2003). Ecotourism policy and planning. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851996097.0000
  17. Gyamtsho, P. (1996). Assessment of the condition and potential for improvement on high altitude rangelands of Bhutan. Natural Science, Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute.
  18. Jubenville, A. (1974). Conservation organizations and wilderness use-time for policy appraisal? Environmental Conservation, 1 (2), pp. 93-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892900004203
  19. Parker, I. (1972). The other side of the coin. African Wildlife Leadership Foundation News, 1(1), pp. 2-6
  20. Richards, G., Hall, D. (2000). The community: A sustainable concept in tourism development. In Richards, G. & Hall, D. (Eds.), Tourism and sustainable community development (pp. 1-13). London: Routledge
  21. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203464915_chapter_1
  22. Rinzin, C., Vermeulen, W. J., Glasbergen, P. (2007). Ecotourism as a mechanism for sustainable development: The case of Bhutan. Environmental Sciences, 4(2), 109-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/15693430701365420
  23. Ritchie, J., Crouch, G. (2003). The competitive destination: A sustainable tourism perspective. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851996646.0000
  24. Robinson, J. G. (2006). Conservation biology and real-world conservation. Conservation Biology, 20(3), 658-66
  25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00469.x
  26. Swift, J. (1972). What future for African national parks? New Scientist, 55, pp. 192-194.
  27. Usher, M. B., Pitt, M., Boer, G. (1974). Recreational pressures in the summer months on a nature reserve on the Yorkshire coast, England. Environmental Conservation, 1 (1), pp. 43-49. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892900003908
  28. Basarir C., Cackir Y.N. (2015). Causal relation between co2 emissions, financial development, energy, and tourism. Asian economic and financial review vol 5.1227-1238. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.aefr/2015.5.11/102.11.1227.1238
  29. Beneet, M. & Radburn, M. (1991). Information technology in tourism: The impact on the industry and supply side of holidays. In Sinclair, M.T. V. & Stabler, M. J. (eds). The tourism industry: An international analysis of England. CAB international.
  30. Bramwell, B. (1993). Tourism and the environment: challenges and choices for the 1990s. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 61-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669589309450702
  31. Calero, C., and Turner, L.W. (2019). Regional economic development and tourism: A literature review to highlight future directions for regional tourism research. Tourism economic.vol26.issue1. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816619881244
  32. Dharmik, (2013). Role of tourism industry in generating foreign exchange, Slideshare.Net, (https://www.slideshare.net/Dharmikpatel7992/role-of-tourism-industry-in-generating-foreign-exchange)
  33. Engle, R. F. & Granger, C. W. J. (1987). Co-Integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing. Econometrica. 55(2).251-276. https://doi.org/10.2307/1913236
  34. Ghosh, B. (2015).Tourism and management. Vikash publishing house.1-https://www.schandpublishing.com/author-details/-biswanath-ghosh/1841
  35. Ohlan, R. (2017). The relationship between tourism, financial development and economic growth in India, Future Business Journal, 3(1), pp 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbj.2017.01.003
  36. Shahbaz, M., Kumar, R. R., Ivanov, S., and Lognathan, N. (2016). The nexus between tourism demand and output per capita with the relative importance of trade openness and financial development: A study of Malaysia. Tourism Economics.1-19. https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2015.0505
  37. Shakouri*, B., Yazdi, S.K., Nategian, N. and Shikhrezaei. N., (2017). International tourism and economic growth. Journal of tourism and hospitality, 3-6.
  38. Zolfani, S.H., Sedaghat, M., Makonom, R. and Zavadskas, E.K. (2015). Sustainable tourism: A comparative literature review on framework and applications. Economic Research-Ekonomiska Istrazivaina. Vol 128.1-30. https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/252988