Main Article Content

Abstract

Purpose of the study: This study aims to provide an overview of the key issues and challenges faced by the COVID-19 pandemic in the Malaysian tourism and hospitality industry, lessons learned from its devastating effects on the industry, and to contemplate possible solutions and strategies for post-pandemic recovery from a global perspective.


Methodology: This is a conceptual study. In doing so, a comprehensive review of the most recent selected literature was gathered from academic and online news portal and relevant online platforms to extract the current state of the art knowledge. Based on the conceptual analysis, this study unfolds the uncertainties about the critical outcomes of the past events to provide some significant insights focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic, which is denoted as post-crisis analysis based on current and past events.


Main Findings: Based on the comprehensive review of the related literature this paper finds that both from the academic and industry perspective that the emphasis should be given to study, teach and engage with current tourism-related concepts and theories to provide a holistic pedagogy to rebuild and transform the tourism and hospitality industry rather than maintaining the current tourism and hospitality trajectory in the post-Covid 19 pandemic age.


Applications of this study: The practical implications of this paper is to assist the tourism and hospitality managers by providing a glimpse of the current and forthcoming challenges in the industry and to provide critical recovery strategies in the post-pandemic phase for the related tourism and hospitality operators to plan effective business strategies, activities and policies to adopt the new normal.


Novelty/Originality of this study: This study exposes the vulnerability of an already gruesome Malaysia tourism and hospitality industry in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic based on the post-crisis analysis in relation to the current and past events, and consequently suggested some critical sustainable resilience strategies for a resurgence in the post-pandemic period from a global point of view.

Keywords

COVID-19 Pandemic Tourism Hospitality Malaysia Social Media Engagement Movement Control Order (MCO)

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, M. A., & Hashim, H. (2020). THE EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA, RESURGENCE IN THE POST-PANDEMIC ERA: A CONCEPTUAL CRITERION. International Journal of Tourism & Hospitality Reviews, 7(2), 54-62. https://doi.org/10.18510/ijthr.2020.726

References

  1. Benjamin, S., Dillette, A., & Alderman, D. H. (2020). “We can’t return to normal”: committing to tourism equity in the post-pandemic age. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 476–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759130
  2. Brouder, P. (2020). Reset Redux: possible evolutionary pathways towards the transformation of tourism in a COVID-19 world. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 484-490. https://doi:10.1080/14616688.2020.1760928
  3. Carr, A. (2020). COVID-19, indigenous peoples and tourism: a view from New Zealand. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 491–502. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1768433
  4. Cheer, J. M. (2020). Human flourishing, tourism transformation and COVID-19: a conceptual touchstone. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1765016
  5. Cheer, J. M., & Lew, A. A. (Eds.). (2017). Tourism resilience and sustainability: Adapting to social, political and economic change. Routledge.
  6. Chassagne, N., & Everingham, P. (2019). Buen Vivir: Degrowing extractivism and growing wellbeing through tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(12), 1909–1925. https://doi.org/10. 1080/09669582.2019.1660668
  7. Chin, C (2019, November 29). Taking care of Malaysian tourism industry in the lead up to VM2020.The Star Malaysia. https://www.thestar.com.my/lifestyle/travel/2019/11/21/taking-care-of-malaysian-tourism-industry-in-the-lead-up-to-vm2020.
  8. Chin, C. (2020, March 03). Economic Stimulus Package is a boost for Malaysian tourism amid Covid-19 outbreak. The Star Malaysia. https://www.thestar.com.my/lifestyle/travel/2020/03/03/the-2020-economic-stimulus-package-is-a-boost-for-malaysian-tourism.
  9. Council, World Travel and Tourism. (2020, July 10). More than 197m Travel & Tourism jobs will be lost due to prolong travel restrictions, according to new research from WTTC. WTTC Org. https://wttc.org/News-Article/More-than-197m-Travel-Tourism-jobs-will-be-lost-due-to-prolonged-travel-restrictions.
  10. Council, World Travel and Tourism. (2020, September 7). WTTC predicts Covid 19 cause 100 million tourism jobs losses. Tin Media. https://www.tin.media/news/details/wttc-predicts-covid-19-would-cause-100-million-tourism-jobs-losses.
  11. Dube, K., Nhamo, G., & Chikodzi, D. (2020). COVID-19 cripples global restaurant and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1773416
  12. Dinerstein, A. C., & Deneulin, S. (2012). Hope movements: Naming mobilisation in a post-development world. Development and Change, 43(2), 585–602. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660. 2012.01765.x.
  13. Dzulkifly, D. (2020, March 13). Tourism industry hit hardest by Covid-19, faces RM3.37b loss. Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/03/13/muhyiddin-tourism-industry-hithard- By-covid-19-to-lose-rm3.37b-while-gdp-s/1846323.
  14. Dw.com (2020, May 11). The coronavirus crisis has hit tourism in Malaysia hard. https://www.dw.com/en/the-coronavirus-crisis-has-hit-tourism-in-malaysia-hard/a-53392776.
  15. Everingham, P., & Chassagne, N. (2020). Post COVID-19 ecological and social reset: moving away from capitalist growth models towards tourism as Buen Vivir. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 555–566. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1762119
  16. Foo, L.P., Chin, M.Y., K.L., & Phuah., K.T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on tourism industry in Malaysia. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1777951
  17. Galvani, A., Lew, A. A., & Perez, M. S. (2020). COVID-19 is expanding global consciousness and the sustainability of travel and tourism. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1760924
  18. Gursoy, D., & Chi, C. G. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on hospitality industry: review of the current situations and a research agenda. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 29(5), 527–529. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2020.1788231
  19. Ganesan, V. (2020, April 27). Hotels face RM 3.3 bil loss in first half, possibly permanent closure for some. The Edge Malaysia Weekly. https://www.theedgemarkets.com/article/hotels-face-rm33-bil-loss-first-half-possibly-permanent-closure-some.
  20. Galvani, A. (2014). Turismo tra impatti e sostenibilita. (Tourism between impacts and sustainability- Monography). Giraldi Editions. ISBN 978-88-6155-584-6.
  21. Hall, C. M., Scott, D., & Gössling, S. (2020). Pandemics, transformations and tourism: Be careful what you wish for. Tourism Geographies, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759131
  22. Hall, C. M., Prayag, G., & Amore, A. (2018). Tourism and resilience: Individual, organisational and destination perspectives. Channelview. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845416317
  23. Hirschmann.R (2020, Jun 23). Travel and tourism in Malaysia - Statistics & Facts. Statista. https://www.statista.com/topics/5741/travel-and-tourism-in-malaysia/
  24. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2010). The elusiveness of sustainability in tourism: The culture-ideology of consumerism and its implications. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(2), 116–129.
  25. Hamzah, A (2020, April 28). Amran Hamzah on Community-Based Tourism in Malaysia and Building Resilience in the Aftermath of COVID-19. Sustainability-leaders. https://sustainability-leaders.com/amran-hamzah-interview/
  26. Hanscom, L. (2020, March 20). Letter from the CEO: Reflecting on the sudden shift in our global reality. Global Footprint Network. https://www.footprintnetwork.org/2020/03/20/letter-from-theceo-reflecting-on-the-sudden-shift-in-our-global-reality/
  27. Ioannides, D., & Gyimóthy, S. (2020). The COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 624–632. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763445
  28. Kaos, J (2020, June 11). Focus on domestic tourism. The star. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2020/06/11/focus-on-domestic-tourism.
  29. Kosyrev, D. (2019). Overtourism — a disease or a symptom? The Malaysian Reserve. https://themalaysianreserve.com/2019/08/14/overtourism-a-disease-or-a-symptom/
  30. Khan, M. A. A., Hashim, H., Aziz, Y.A & Samdin, Z (2020).Consumer community on tourism social media and consumer perceived value: review paper. Paper presented at the 13th Asian Academy of Management International Conference 2019 (AAMC 2019), Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences EpSBS, 88,453-462. https://doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2020.10.40
  31. Lucas, A. (2020, March 19). Olive Garden’s parent begins offering paid sick leave to all employees amid coronavirus outbreak. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/19/darden-restaurants-driq3- 2020-earnings-beat-estimates.html.
  32. Malaysian Association of Hotel (MAH). (2020). Tourism comes to a standstill. https://www.hotels.org.my/press/22578- tourism-comes-to-a-standstill.
  33. Malay mail (2020, May 31). Govt urged to come to aid of hotel workers who lost jobs. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/05/31/govt-urged-to-come-to-aid-of-hotel-workers-who-lost-jobs/1871004.
  34. Mypf (2020, May 14). Malaysia’s tourism industry received a beating by Covid-19 pandemic. Is recovery possible?https://mypf.my/2020/05/14/tourism-industry-malaysia-covid/
  35. Opalyn Mok (2020, April 01). Covid-19: With tourism industry at a standstill, calls for subsidies, incentives. Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/04/01/covid-19-tourism-industry-at-a-standstill-calls-for-subsidies-incentives/1852372
  36. Prideaux, B., Thompson, M., & Pabel, A. (2020). Lessons from COVID-19 can prepare global tourism for the economic transformation needed to combat climate change. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 667–678. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1762117
  37. Puvaneswary, S (2020). Malaysia extends recovery MCO to year-end; ban on foreign tourists remain.Ttgasia. https://www.ttgasia.com/2020/08/31/malaysia-extends-recovery-mco-to-year-end-ban-on-foreign-tourists-remain/
  38. Prime Minister’s Office. (2020). 2020 economic stimulus package – PRIHATIN. https://www.pmo. gov.my/2020/03/pakejrangsangan- ekonomi-prihatin-rakyat-prihatin/
  39. Romagosa, F. (2020). The COVID-19 crisis: Opportunities for sustainable and proximity tourism. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 690–694. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763447
  40. Taleb, N. N. (2007). The black Swan: The impact of the highly improbable. Random House.
  41. Vincent Tan, 2020. How will Malaysia's environment fare after the lifting of COVID-19 restrictions? Channelnewsasia. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asia/malaysia-environment-post-movement-control-order-budget-deficit-12715506
  42. Watts, J. & Kommenda, N. (2020, March 23). Coronavirus pandemic leading to huge drop in air pollution. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/mar/23/coronaviruspandemic- leading-to-huge-drop-in-air-pollution n
  43. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development). (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford University Press.
  44. Whitzman, C. (2020, 25 March). Silver lining: Could COVID-19 lead to a better future? The Conversation. Retrieved 28 March, from https://theconversation.com/silver-lining-could-covid- 19-lead-to-a-better-future-134204
  45. Yu, M., Li, Z., Yu, Z., He, J., Zhou, J. (2020). Communication related health crisis on social media: a case of COVID-19 outbreak. Current Issues in Tourism. doi: 10.1080/13683500.2020.1752632.
  46. Zainal,F., Chung,C.( 2020). Be aware of over tourism. The Star Malaysia. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2020/01/06/be-aware-of-overtourism
  47. Zimmermann, F. M. (2018). Does sustainability (still) matter in tourism (geography)? Tourism Geographies, 20(2), 333–336. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2018.1434814