Purpose of the study: To propose a new framework on integrated 21st century STEM education through Robotics Project-based Learning, and secondly, to outline a Robotics Project-based Learning curriculum in the perspective of integrated 21st century STEM education.

Methodology: Content analysis was carried out to design a new framework. Secondary data collection technique was used.

Main Findings: The proposed framework can identify itself with each STEM curriculum in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Educational robotics as a tool to integrate the fours discipline through project-based learning.

Applications of this study: The proposed framework is applicable in 21st century learning environment using student-centered approach. 21st century skills are enhanced through collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and communication while students carry out robotics project-based learning.

Novelty/Originality of this study: A new pedagogy of STEM integration in Malaysia education system. Hands-on and minds-on activities through robotics project-based learning promote higher order thinking in students.


  1. Afari, E., & Khine, M. S. (2017). Robotics as an Educational Tool: Impact of Lego Mindstorms. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 7(6), 437–442.
  2. Alimisis, D., & Boulougaris, G. (2014). Robotics in physics education : fostering graphing abilities in kinematics. Proceedings of 4th International Workshop Teaching Robotics, Teaching with Robotics & 5th International Conference Robotics in Education, 2–10.
  3. Analytis, S., Sadler, J. A., & Cutkosky, M. R. (2017). Creating Paper Robots increases designers’ confidence to prototype with microcontrollers and electronics. International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, 5(1–2), 48–59.
  4. Angeli, C. (2018). Developing Third-Grade Students’ Computational Thinking Skills with Educational Robotics. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 1-8). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
  5. Bell, S. (2010). Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(2), 39–43.
  6. Bernhardt, P. E. (2015). The Qualitative Report 21st Century Learning: Professional Development in Practice 21st Century Learning: Professional Development in Practice, 20(1), 1–19.
  7. Buck Institute for Education. (2013). Creativity & Innovation Rubric for PBL, 1.
  8. Chen, Y., Chang, C., & Tseng, K. (2015). The instructional design of integrative STEM curriculum: A pilot study in a robotics summer camp, (September), 0–4.
  9. Cooley, C. G., & Parker, R. G. (2017). Modeling and analysis of high-speed, compliant, aerospace gear vibration. In Strain.
  10. Cydis, S. (2015). Authentic instruction and technology literacy. Journal of Learning Design, 8(1), 68–78.
  11. Danahy, E., Wang, E., Brockman, J., Carberry, A., Shapiro, B., & Rogers, C. B. (2014). LEGO-based robotics in higher education: 15 years of student creativity. International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 11(1), 1–15.
  12. Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn, 51–76.
  13. Education Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013 - 2025. (2013).
  14. Eguchi, A. (2015). RoboCupJunior for promoting STEM education, 21st century skills, and technological advancement through robotics competition. Robotics and Autonomous Systems.
  15. Eguchi, A., & Okada, H. (2018). Learning with social robots—The World Robot Summit's approach. In Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC), 2018 IEEE (pp. 53-56). IEEE.
  16. Ernst, J. V, Ernst, J. V, & Tech, V. (2014). Analysis of Content and Digital Media Infusion Quality in Integrative STEM Education Education, 49(1).
  17. Friday Institute. (2012). Student Attitudes toward STEM Survey (S-STEM), 2012(1038154), 4–5.
  18. Gagel, C. W. (2006). Towards an Authentic Technological Literacy. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 43(4), 69–75.
  19. Han, S. (2017). Korean students? attitudes toward STEM project-based learning and major selection. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 17(2), 529–548.
  20. Han, S., Capraro, R., & Capraro, M. M. (2014). How Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (Stem) Project-Based Learning (Pbl) Affects High, Middle, and Low Achievers Differently: the Impact of Student Factors on Achievement. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 13(5), 1089–1113.
  21. Hanipah, Hussin, Che Amran Aliza, Mat Hanafiah Mohd Arif, Salim Fadzilah, Ali Adlan, Pramudya Gede Ananta, Yunos Mohd Razali, Mohd Yaacob Noorayisahbe, and Jaber Mustafa Musa. (2016a). “Academic Leadership and Pedagogical Strategies in Malaysian Polytechnic for 21st Century.” Social Sciences (Pakistan) 11 (18).: 4574–80.
  22. Hanipah, Hussin, Che Amran Aliza, Mat Hanafiah Mohd Ariff, Salim Fadzilah, Ali Adlan, Pramudya Gede Ananta, Yunos Mohd Razali, Mohd Yaacob Noorayisahbe, and Jaber Mustafa Musa. (2016b). “Malaysian teacher/Lecturer Educatiion Development in TVET: A Fundamental Framework for Human Capital Development.” International Business Management 10 (15): 2980–86.
  23. Hanipah, Hussin. (2004). Learning to Be Reflective from Theory to Practices: Malaysia Experiences. UPSI.
  24. Ioannou, A., Socratous, C., & Nikolaedou, E. (2018). Expanding the Curricular Space with Educational Robotics: A Creative Course on Road Safety. In European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 537-547). Springer, Cham.
  25. Jayarajah, K., Saat, R. M., & Rauf, R. A. A. (2014). A Review of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Education Research from 1999–2013: A Malaysian Perspective. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 10(3), 155–163.
  26. Kelley, T. R., & Knowles, J. G. (2016). A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education.
  27. Kennedy, T. J., & Odell, M. R. L. L. (2014). Engaging Students In STEM Education. Science Education International, 25(3), 246–258.
  28. Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology.
  29. Mann, E. L., College, H., Chamberlin, S. A., & Graefe, A. K. (2017). Creativity and Giftedness.
  30. Marca, A. La, & Longo, L. (2017). Addressing Student Motivation, Self-regulation, and Engagement in Flipped Classroom to Decrease Boredom. Ijiet.Org, 7(3), 230–235.
  31. Moore, T. J., Glancy, A. W., Tank, K. M., Kersten, J. A., Smith, K. A., & Stohlmann, M. S. (2014). A framework for quality K-12 engineering education: Research and development. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER), 4(1), 2.
  32. Nikitopoulou, S. (2017). Robotics in Education, 457(October 2017).
  33. Razali, S. N., Noor, H. A. M., Ahmad, M. H., & Shahbodin, F. (2017). Enhanced student soft skills through integrated online project based collaborative learning. International Journal of ADVANCED AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 4(3), 59–67.
  34. Samuels, P., & Poppa, S. (2017). Developing extended real and virtual robotics enhancement classes with years 10–13. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 457(July), 69–81.
  35. Savard, A., & Freiman, V. (2016). Investigating Complexity to Assess Student Learning from a Robotics-Based Task. Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education, 93–114.
  36. Sharifah Nadiyah, R., Faaizah, S., Hanipah, H., & Norasiken, B. (2015). Online collaborative learning elements to propose an online project based collaborative learning model. Jurnal Teknologi, 77(23), 55–60.
  37. Sharifah Nadiyah, R., Faaizah, S., Hanipah, H., Norasiken, B., & Mohd Hafiez, A. (2014). Perceptions towards the Usage of Collaborative Learning in Teaching and Learning Processes at. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Education and Research– IJMER, 1(2), 42–45.
  38. Sharifah Nadiyah, R., Hanipah, H., & Faaizah, S. (2014). 21st Century Core Soft Skills Research Focus for Integrated Online Project Based Collaborative Learning Model. Journal of Applied Science and Agriculture, 9(11), 63–68.
  39. Spolaôr, N., & Benitti, F. B. V. (2017). Robotics applications grounded in learning theories on tertiary education: A systematic review. Computers & Education.
  40. Sullivan, A., & Umaschi, M. (2015). Robotics in the early childhood classroom : learning outcomes from an 8-week robotics curriculum in pre-kindergarten through second grade. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 20(1), 3–20.
  41. Unfried, A., Faber, M., Stanhope, D. S., & Wiebe, E. (2015). The Development and Validation of a Measure of Student Attitudes Toward Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (S-STEM). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33(7), 622–639.