Purpose of Study: This study aims to examine how the reality digital environment stimulate the advertising schemata (mindset) of the LES community in Malaysia. This study also measures the advertising literacy of the LES community based on the two literacy models; cognitive model of media literacy and advertising literacy model in relation to flyposting.

Methodology: To represent the low-income distribution, respondents from the Public Housing Program (PHP) were selected. This study used the survey method as a research design by distributing questionnaires which acts as the research instrument for data acquisition from a total of 574 respondents from five areas of Public Housing Program (PHP) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The advertising literacy instrument was used as the main tool to examine the advertising schemata and to measure the advertising literacy in relation to the flyposting phenomena amongst the low-income community.

Main findings: The LES community are comprised of highly advertising literate individuals despite having low academic qualifications and low income due to technological factors. This study also identifies the significant relationship between the digital environment and the advertising schemata of the LES community since both aspects reinforce each other in explaining the media issues available in the society today. The LES community are able to access, analyse, evaluate, analyse, and construct their own meaning towards the advertisements available today.

Applications of this study: This study is beneficial in contributing to the development of mass media and communication field specifically in the area of advertising literacy. The discussion provided in this study adds on to the debate of the current advertising research and presents consequent implications for the communication and advertising field.

Novelty/Originality: This study has successfully developed an advertising literacy instrument based on two literacy models; cognitive model of media literacy and advertising literacy model. All the indicators tested in the instrument have its own strength in determining the advertising literacy level in the context of flyposting. Hence, the findings in this study may be beneficial to and act as a framework or a limitation for other similar studies in future.


  1. Austin, E.W., Pinkleton, B.E., Hust, Stacey J.T. & Cohen, M. (2005). Evaluation of an American legacy foundation/Washington State Department of health media literacy pilot study. Health Communication 18 (1), 75-95.
  2. Bann, C.M., McCormack, L.A, Berkman, N.D., & Squiers, L.B. (1981). The Health Literacy Skills Instrument: A 10-Item Short Form. Journal of Health Communication, 37, 191-202.
  3. Belch, G. E., & Belch, M.A. (2014). Advertising & Promotion: An integrated marketing communication perspective (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
  4. Black, I. R. & Nevill, I. (2009). Fly-posting: An exploration of a ‘controversial medium’. Journal of Marketing Communications 15 (4), 209-226.
  5. Castells, M. & Cardoso, G. (2005). The Network Society from Knowledge to Policy. Washington: Centre for Transatlantic Relations.
  6. Condit, C.M. (1989). The rhetorical limits of polysemy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 6 (2), 103–122.
  7. Dahlen, M., & Edenius, M. (2007). When Is Advertising Advertising? Comparing Responses to Non-Traditional and Traditional Advertising Media. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 29(1), 33-42.
  8. Fennis, B. M., & Stroebe, W. (2010). The psychology of advertising. USA and CANADA: Psychology Press.
  9. Hackley, C. (2010). Advertising and Promotion: An integrated marketing communications approach (2nd ed.) London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
  10. Hobbs, R. & Frost, R. 2003. Measuring the acquisition of media‐literacy skills. Reading Research Quarterly 38 (3), 330-355.
  11. Hoch, S. J. (2002). Product Experience is Seductive. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(3), 448-454.
  12. Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Weigel, M., Clinton, K., & Robinson, A.J. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st Century. Cambridge: London. MIT Press.
  13. Jones-Kavalier, B.R., & Flannigan, S.L. (2006). Connecting the digital dots: Literacy of the 21st century. EDU-CAUSE Quarterly, 29(2), 8-10.
  14. Kress, G. & Leeuwen, V. T. (2002). Colour as a semiotic mode: Notes for a grammar of colour. Visual Communication 1 (3), 343–68.
  15. Lee Ming Tan & Montague, J. M. (2015). Understanding new media literacy: The development of a measuring instrument. Applied Pyschology: Proceedings of the 2015 Asian Congress of Applied Pyschology (ACAP 2015). World Scientific.
  16. Lee, L., Chen, D.-T., Li, J.-Y. & Lin, T.-B. (2015). Understanding New Media Literacy: The Development of a Measuring Instrument. Computers & Education, 85, 84-93.
  17. Livingstone, S. & Helsper, E. J. (2006). Does Advertising Literacy Mediate the Effects of Advertising on Children? A Critical Examination of Two-Linked Research Literatures in Relation to Obesity and Food Choice. Journal of Communication, 56, 560-584.
  18. Malmelin, N. (2010). What is Advertising Literacy? Exploring the Dimensions of Advertising Literacy. Journal of Visual Literacy, 29(2), 129-142.
  19. Medina, R.G. (1990). Principles of marketing. Philippines: REX Bookstore.
  20. Messaris, P. (1998). Visual Aspects of Media Literacy. Journal of Communication 48(1), 70-80.
  21. Moffitt, K. (2015). What Is a Social Class? - Definition & Concept. Intro to Anthropology: Help and Review / Social Science Course. [20 November 2015].
  22. Mohd Hasril Amiruddin, Isma Atiqah Ngadiran, Fathin Liyana Zainudin & Norhayati Ngadiman. (2016). Tahap kemahiran generik pelajar Malaysia dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran: Kajian kes pelajar Institut Kemahiran Mara, Johor Baharu. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space,12(3), 111-121.
  23. Mohd Nor Shahizan Ali, Dan Fleming, Ali Salman, Novell Lyndon. (2017). Media Literacy in ‘Big Kitchen (1952)’ historical Documentary. SHS Web of Conferences, Vol. 33.
  24. Moore, J. J. & Rodgers, S. L. (2005). An examination of advertising credibility and scepticism in five different media using the persuasion knowledge model. American Academy of Advertising. Conference. Proceedings. American Academy of Advertising.
  25. Neesa Ameera Mohamed Salim, Mohd Yusof Abdullah, Mohd Nor Shahizan Ali. (2016). Fly Posting: Informative vs Public Nuisance. e-Bangi: Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 11(2), 232-257.
  26. Nor Rashidah Zainal, Gurmit Kaur, Nor’Aisah Ahmad, & Jamaliah Mhd. Khalili (2012). Housing Conditions and Quality of Life of the Urban Poor in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 827-838.
  27. Pierce, S., Pravikoff, D. & Tanner, A. (2003). Information literacy: Instrument development to measure competencies and knowledge among nursing educators, nursing administrators, and nursing clinicians. AMIA 2003 Symposium : 971.
  28. Pillai, R.S.N. (2010). Marketing management. New Delhi, INDIA: S. Chand Publishing.
  29. Plester, B. & Wood, C. (2009). Exploring relationships between traditional and new media literacies: British preteen texters at school. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 14 (4), 1108-1129.
  30. Pool, M.M., Koolstra, C.M. & Van der Voort, R.H.A. (2003). The impact of background radio and television on high school students‟ homework performance. Journal of Communication 53, 74-87.
  31. Potter, W. J. (2004). Theory of media literacy. United States of America: SAGE Publications, Inc.
  32. Potter, W. J. (2015). Introduction to media literacy. United States of America: SAGE Publications, Inc.
  33. Primack, B. A., Gold, M. A., Switzer, G. E., Hobbs, R., Lands, S. R. & Fine, M. J. (2006). Development and Validation of a Smoking Media Literacy Scale. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine ,160, 369-374.
  34. Radhakrishna, R.B. (2007). Tips for developing and testing questionaires/instruments. Journal of Extension, 45(1).
  35. Reinard, J.C. (2001). Introduction to Communication Research. McGraw-Hill.
  36. Rivera-Perez, L. (1996). Rethinking ideology: Polysemy, pleasure and hegemony in television culture. Journal of Communication Inquiry 20, 37-56.
  37. Rozendaal, E., Lapierre, M. A., Reijmersdal, E. a. V. & Buijzen, M. (2011). Reconsidering advertising literacy as a defense against advertising effects. Media Pyschology, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group 14 (4), 333-354.
  38. Schmitt, K.L., Woolf, K.D. & Anderson, D.R. (2003). Viewing the viewers: Viewing behaviours by children and adults during television programs and commercials. Journal of Communication 53, 265-281.
  39. Stafford, T. F., & Stafford, M. R. (2002). The Advantages of Atypical Advertisements for Stereotyped Product Categories. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 24(1), 25-37.
  40. Stam, K. R. & Bowes, J. E. (1990). The mass communication process, A behavioral and social perspective. Kendall: Hunt Publishing Company.
  41. Stibbe, A. (2009). The Handbook of sustainable literacy: Skills for a changing world. (UK): Green Books Ltd.
  42. Thoman, E. & Jolls, T. (2004). Media literacy: A national priority for a changing world. American Behavioural Scientist 48(1), 18-29
  43. Tichenor, P. J., Donohue, G. A. & Olien, C. N. (1970). Mass Media Flow and Differential Growth in Knowledge. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 34(2), 169-170.
  44. Trehan, M. & Trehan, R. (2015). Advertising and sales management. V.K (India) Enterprises.
  45. Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st Century Skills: Learning for life in our times. USA: John Wiley & Sons.