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AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN EMPOWERMENT COMMUNITY AT UNINHABITABLE HOUSE’S RENOVATION FUND ONWEST BANDUNG REGENCY
Corresponding Author(s) : Nina Karlina
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 7 No. 3 (2019): May
Purpose of Study: Cihampelas village, Cihampelas sub-district, West Bandung Regency is the most village that gets the social fund for the renovation of the house which is uninhabitable “Rumah Tidak Layak Huni” (RTLH). This village could inventory the uninhabitable houses properly so that in this village, there are around 334 renovations of uninhabitable houses. These RTLH renovations program is the program that aims to improve the economic life of the society by prioritizing the society self-reliance through build mutual cooperation and togetherness. By this empowerment then, the community empowerment organization “Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat” (KSM) became the coordinator of the program. The apparatus and companion consultant saw that KSM Cihampelas village, growth slowly unlike another village, but for the uninhabitable renovation they were effective and on target. Meanwhile, another village has so many problems in that community empowerment organization (KSM). In this analysis, the writer uses the qualitative method with study cases approach. The writer uses social capital theory, they are; trust, social norm and social networking. This community empowerment organization (KSM) who became the bearer in this program, has a leader or a chairman that collective collegial, so that all of the decisions can be taken from consensus. Although, from West Bandung’s apparatus and companion con- the sultant point of view, Cihampelas tend to be slow, and slow progress, but the Cihampelas’ KSM very strong and trusted highly by the society towards this KSM.Although, from West Bandung’s apparatus and companion consultant point of view, Cihampelas tend to be slow, and slow progress, the Cihampelas’ KSM very strong and trusted highly by the society towards this KSM.
Methodology: In the data collecting technique, the writer uses an observation technique, deep interview, focus group discussion (FGD), interpretation approach, and library research. In data validation testing, the writer uses the triangulation technique by check, re-check and crosscheck for data that get from the theory, methodology, and writer perception. The resulting analysis shows that from three variables of social capital that analyzed by study cases at Cihampelas village for the fund of the uninhabitable program (RTLH), indicate that this village was succeeded in managing this program because they could explore the local wisdom which exists in these villages.
Results: This case proves that kinship culture which builds from this fund program at the society in this analysis, shows the culture of helping each other, trusting and knowing also caring, especially in facing the house renovation problems.
Implications/Applications: KSM highly respected by the society, since they know that the management does not get the incentive from anywhere, but because of their good intention to make the village and the environment more comfortable. Even the network is good enough because of the togetherness.
The problems in real estate and settlement until nowadays, still became a challenge for the government of West Bandung regency. There are so many factors influence the housing and settlement problems solution, one of the factors is causes by the population increased. The population increased, makes the needed of houses is increases also. In this autonomy regional era, so the housing responsibilities for the society must be the priority from the local government. West Bandung regency government has to think about the strategy to fulfill the houses needed.
In autonomy era, actually government’s role in developing region, limited only in facilitator, beside the government’s role especially in terms of financing is limited. Aside from financing problem from the government, also there are other problems in fulfill the houses needed in West Bandung regency, they are:
- The imbalance between the high needed of habitable houses, compare to the societies’ economy in the village
- The mechanism of housing renovation program has not optimal yet.
- The decreasing of society will in mutual cooperation activity voluntary.
From those problems, also the limitation of government’s role, then it is the time for the society and private’s role must be increases. So that, housing from the empowerment became the program alternative that can be used for the West Bandung regency government with the aim for the low economical life society will build the house in mutual cooperation. West Bandung regency government just gives the stimulant to renovate the houses Rp. 5.000.000 each of uninhabitable house (RTLH). This program attempts to build the society empowerment by increasing the togetherness and mutual cooperation in aim make the low economical society better.
By this empowerment pattern, so the community empowerment organization is the most importance part in implementation of houses uninhabitable renovation (RTLH). The realization of this program, depend on how the empowerment community (KSM) in managing the fund from the government, role of the government, institution and the public figure. If this 4 constituents cohesive, so the social fund of houses uninhabitable renovation in the village will be effective and on target.
The list of uninhabitable social fund in West Bandung Regency is shown in Table 1.
|No.||Regencies||Total UnitRenovation Fund Receiver RTLH|
Based on the data above, Cihampelas regency was the regency that received the social fund the most for the uninhabitable houses renovation that is 436 RTLH and Cihampelas village received the fund social the most RTLH around 334 houses. Seeing many houses that have to be managed by the community empowerment organization, so this KSM must be strong because the companion consultant KSM has limited people, while the territory wide enough. Here the leadership and managerial from the KSM chairman became the center for the writer to be analyzed.
The previous research done in Planning and Public Policy Magister Program, Economy and Business Faculty, Indonesia University 2014. The background of her research causes by 1.447 uninhabitable house in Depok at 2009, and in 2012 the total increased to 1.772 household. This research aims to evaluated the program by using 6 criteria that developed by William Dunn, they are; accuracy, effectively, adequacy, efficiency, flattening, and responsiveness with perception approach to each household that received the advantage. This research shown that the uninhabitable program (RTLH) in Depok city good enough.The result of this analysis indicated that the implementation of social rehabilitation program uninhabitable house (RS-RTLH) in Serang city has not optimal yet. It can be seen from the parties that not full involved in the program RS-RTLH, and the writer found there are some of implementers in limited understanding, and the socialization about RS-RTLH has not known yet by the people in Serangcity.1,2
Another previous research which relevant and became the references. The background analysiscauses by the disbursement of funds that not on time, the uninhabitable program that happens RS-RTLH inappropriate with implementation technique instruction, not all of the related institutions that have to responsible with the program RS-RTLH give the contribution, and the program socialization RS-RTLH in Serang city has not optimal yet. 3
Indeed the research about RTLH, more focus on the government roles in implementation on the program. Whereas, the role of companion consultant and community empowerment organization (KSM) in RTLH’s program has importance influence. In community empowerment organization (KSM) is the work group that consist of the chairman and the secretary also the member. Where the result of their work, depend on trust, norms and good relation between them. Seeing this situation, the writer interest to analyze the dominant social capital that encourages the successful of RTLH renovation program in West Bandung Regency.
Social capital of society have 3 core variables, they are; trust, social norms and social networking. Trust divided into individual level, institutional, and abstract system. Social norm is the most importance variable to keep the social relationship. The norms that exist in society, is the rule that made to keep the commitment, fulfill the responsibilities and the bond in the society. 4 Social networking is the relationship of people or even the community which is related directly or indirectly. Social relationship related with the communications in social networking. Social capital related to parameter. Participation in social/work organization networking, trusted each other, can be seen from, obedience to the norms, can be seen from: the obedience level to the norm which is believed, caring each other, and being involved in social organization activity. 5 The existences of social capitalmust be added with cooperation dimension. Social capital externally influenced by mutual trust relation, mutual respect and mutual benefit. Meanwhile, internally social capital influenced by the value in a community. 6,7
In social capital theory, known have 3 main streams. First, Putnam and Fukuyama’s theory; second, Coleman’s theory; and the third Bourdieu’s theory. Putnam, Coleman, or Bourdieu agree that social capital is the resource. However, Coleman tend to see the social capital as the social resources which is available for the individuals and the families to achieves social mobility. Specifically, Coleman stated that social capital is the resources that could facilitated the individual and the family to have an adequate human capital. 8 The basic theory of Putnam, emphasize that social capital as the value about mutual trust belief between the member of society or hole of the society towards the leader. This social capital seen as the social institution which involved the networks, norms and belief to encourage the social collaboration (coordination and cooperation) for the common interest. These things also contains the understanding the networks of civic engagement needed, relation/ social network inside of the society and the norms which triggered the community productivity. Social capital changed from something that gets by the individual into something that owned or not owned by the another individual or group in a region, community, city, state or continent. Putnam explained that social capital is the resources owned by individual or community to makes a commitment. Commitment understood as the social norms which became capital component such as honesty, an attitude to keep the commitment, fulfill the responsibilities, mutual bond between one to another. These social norms are the rules which are unwritten in social system that handle the society to acts and interact with other people. The uses of this theory function to learns, knows, and analysis about the belief patterns, norms also the networks that exist, the dynamic that created and the resources that shaped the trust, norms and networks that exist and further how those aspects implemented in a family and its relation with the social environment.9,10 Social capital in Coleman’s theory has 3 forms; first, obligation and expectation based on trustworthiness in social environments; second sources capacity of social structure information; and the third, norms which runs with various sanctions. In this case, can be formulated that each of citizen or family in disaster situation has a social responsibilities and hope to help each other, like exchanging information and experiences about preparedness in decreasing the risks of disaster. Social capital as the thing which refers to the institutional dimension, the relationship that created, and the norms that shaped the qualities and the quantities social relationship in society. Social capital not only total amount institution or a group that underpinning social life, but also with wider spectrum. Societies ability in mutual cooperation cannot be separated from the social capital that they have. 11,12 The nature of social capital is social relationship that intertwined in the society’s daily life. The core of social capital lies on how the society ability in an entities or a group to cooperated in build the networks to achieve the goal together. The cooperation colored by a mutual interrelation patterns and mutual reciprocity, and build based on trust which is sustained by the positive norms and social values. 13,14
The researches approach that uses in thin analysis is study cases approach with qualitative analysis method. Qualitative research guidance the substantive theorizing based on the data. The research design uses the descriptive method, that is find out the facts with interpreted that portray the characteristics from several of group or individual phenomenon that comes from the findings. Qualitative method uses to reveal comprehensively and naturally about how the social capital supports the successful program through the fund for the uninhabitable houses (RTLH). Informant also can illustrate the phenomenon that happens, causality relation, the tendency, and the developing culture in fund program for uninhabitable houses (RTLH).
The writer also put forward objectivity aspects and honesty that realized with explained the aim of the research to the informant. Besides, the writer also conceal the informant identity, so the consequences from this research wont be affected the informant that gives the information. Data and information that used in this research comes from direct investigation, interview note, interview record, and the activity pictures that changed into documents and events notes that processed to be the data. Descriptive model scheme shown in Figure 1.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Social capital measurement related trust, approached with research component towards human resources and strategy leadership. This social capital in the context of uninhabitable houses renovation measures through fund receiver behavior, behavior from community empowerment organization, leadership style and the existence of organization.
The result analysis, shows that a half of fund receivers in the Cihampelas village have bad behavior about the uninhabitable house renovation. Most of them, cannot finished the renovation, in hence thought of 5 million Rupiahs does not enough for the renovation, so there are many of them that still abandoned. For the rest, much wiser, they received the fund and renovated their house maximum with the material that send by the community empowerment organization and they asks the help from another people to gets more fund and helps. After all actually the factor the closeness of receivers fund with the coordinator of community empowerment organization, public figure and the closeness with the apparatus has a big influence for the effectiveness the uninhabitable houses renovation.
Meanwhile, the behavior from the community empowerment organization overall they were fair enough in distributing the goods for the renovation’s material. But still, in gives the information to the fund receivers and others depends on the closeness and activeness the fund receivers in asking the information.
Based on the interview result with the companion consultant, community empowerment organization (KSM) in Cihampelas village, Cihampelas sub-district slow response towards the instructions from companion consultant. They always want to be guidance unlike the KSM from another village, which more independent.
In leadership role, the headman only work as the facilitator related to the society. Headman actually has to mediate between the Community Empowerment Organization and the society that received the fund or even the whole society. Cihampelas’ headman tend to un-proactive, he just gives the instruction generally.
The responsibilities of uninhabitable houses renovation fully handled by community empowerment organization (KSM), the leadership responsible KSM is collegial collective, even tough structurally organization consist of the chairman, secretary and treasure, but the leadership method not only handled by the chairman/coordinator, but also the result of discussion based on the collective consensus, all the things done together, concludes collectively. While the condition in Cihampelas village, there is no dominant figure that could take the decision quickly, so that the apparatus in West Bandung regency government or the companion consultant sees that the progress of Cihampelas village slower than another villages.
Some of the people in Cihampelas village very active in participates to supports the uninhabitable program with volunteer in though or help, also helps the programs runs well by giving the material such as woods and bamboos. Community empowerment organization (KSM) does not gets any incentive from the fund of uninhabitable (RTLH) or even from the villages government, and West Bandung Regency government. Moreover to follows the Bintek activity, or another activity that related to implementation technique guidance RTLH there is no any incentive. KSM motivation is helping their village and the people, so that by the fund from the government for the uninhabitable houses renovation can be on target and makes the settlement better, cleaner and beautiful.
The managements of KSM do not have any vision and mission from their community, they just attempt to distribute the fund based on the rule and run well with the consensus and collegial collective leadership. Decisions processing, monitoring and evaluating has been done with togetherness.
b. Social Norm.
Social norm measures from the financial resources and infrastructure, found from the willingness fund indicator around 5 million from the West Bandung regency government, another helps in form of financial and goods from another sources, human resources that processed it. Based on the interview result, actually most of the society stated that 5 million enough to stimulus for the fund receiver to renovates their house. Even tough there is some people thinks that it’s not enough. In additional helps in form of material, they are such as additional donation from the society or from another donation like contributes to renovates the houses or thoughts, its more than enough given from the society around the village. In fact, competitively, the management and the society do not have special competences, but they have good intention to renovate the uninhabitable houses. Means, basically the fund from the West Bandung regency government received openly in this village, and enough to stimulants, but for the community empowerment organization KSM with no incentive, it is such as an obstacle for the human resources enhancement quality in that community. Because in Bintek event and technique training held by the government, far enough so need the cost for the transportation and another needs. From the infrastructure supporting sides for the implementation and enhancement performance KSM still unavailable, both in terms technology or another facilities.
c. Social Networking.
Measurements of social model related to social networking approaching with research component towards process management and environment. This social capital in management fund context for the uninhabitable houses renovation measures by the community empowerment organization involve in organization and its influenced. Fund processed RTLH done through the socialization to the society via RT, RW and then discussed about who will get the fund. Cihampelas village is one of the active village so they obtained various funding to renovate the house in these RTLH program. Afterwards, the meeting results of RT and RW, re-consensus in village extent were forwarded to the West Bandung regency government. As a result, the society can get the access widely to propose more programs.
Based on the result of interview above, RTLH program in Cihampelas village has not been done unlikely the professional, but the management processes and functions starts from the planning, organizing, actuating as well as controlling has been done with collectively and togetherness. So that the Cihampelas local wisdom could be excavated.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
From three variables of social capital that has been analyzed used case study in Cihampelas village for uninhabitable houses fund’s program (RTLH), indicated that the successful of this village in managing this program supports by the society that can excavating the Cihampelas local wisdom. Community empowerment organization (KSM) that handle the program led by the collegial collective leader, so all of the decisions tend to be consensus decision. Even though from the apparatus and companion consultant West Bandung regency point of view, Cihampelas village tend to be slow progress, but the KSM Cihampelas village very strong and trustworthy by the society in this village. This situation shows that the relationship culture that build in this fund program at the society which is analyzed showing the mutual cooperation culture, trusting, knowing and caring, especially in faced the house building problems. KSM get so many respected, since the society knows that the management does not paid, but because of their good intention to help the village and the environment more comfortable. The social networks were good enough because of the togetherness.
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Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
AdiFajarNugraha (2014). Impelementasi Program RehabilitasiSosialRumahTidakLayakHuni (RS-RTLH) di Kota Serang. S2 Thesis, Universitas Sultan AgengTirtayasa.
Afriyani, D., Sa’dijah, C., Subanji, S., and Muksar, M. (2018). Characteristics of Students’ Mathematical Understand- ing in Solving Multiple Representation Task based on Solo Taxonomy. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 13(3):281–287.
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Primadona (2012). Penguatan Modal SosialuntukPemberdayaanMasyarakatdalam Pembangunan Pedesaan (Kelompok- TaniKecamatanRambatan), JurnalPolibisnis.
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Saeidi, H. and Prasad, G. B. (2014). Impact of accounting information systems (AIS) on organizational performance: A case study of TATA consultancy services (TCS)-India. UCT Journal of Management and Accounting Studies, 4(4):412–417.
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Tri, P. (2006). Penguatan Modal Sosial Untuk Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Pedesaan dalam Pengelolaan Lahan Kering: Studi Kasus di Desa-desa (Hulu DAS) Ex Proyek Bangun Desa, Kabupaten Gunungkidul dan Ex Proyek Pertanian Lahan Kering, Kabupaten Boyolali. Jurnal Argo Ekonomi, 24(2):178–206.
Waldman, D. H. G., González, G. T., and Cordero, O. L. (2018). Factores que determinan la selección de la universidad destino en el ámbito internacional. Opción, 34(86):235–258.