Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their content.
THE IMPACT OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN WOMEN ROLE INCREASED PROGRAM TOWARDS HEALTHY AND PROSPEROUS FAMILY (P2WKSS) GARUT REGENCY
Corresponding Author(s) : Nina Karlina
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 7 No. 3 (2019): May
Purpose of Study: Sindang Sari Village is a village located at the foot of Cikuray Mountain, Cigedug Sub-District. This village is the leading village of Garut Regency in the program of increasing the role of women. There are three rural groups assessed in this women’s role-building program. Villages located in mountainous, urban and coastal areas. Sindangsari Village is a village located in a mountainous area, P2WKSS Program is a program implemented in an effort to create, improve the progress and welfare of family and social environment that involves the whole society be it men moreover women. One of the objectives of the program is to improve the health status of women, improve the status of women’s education, improve women’s knowledge and skills in productive economic endeavors. The purpose of this study is to find out whether the impact of women’s empowerment can change their attitude and women behavior. In this research, the writer uses a qualitative method with a case study approach. The author uses Mardikanto’s theory of Community Empowerment Steps, namely: area selection, socialization of community development, community empowerment process, and community self- reliance process.
Methodology: In data collection, the author uses observation techniques, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), interpretation approach, and literature study. In the data validity test, the writer used the triangulation technique with a check, re-check, and crosscheck for data obtained from the writer’s theory, methodology, and perception.
Results: The results showed that the empowerment of women in Sindang Sari Village is more optimized in a productive economy. Increased health status let alone education has not run optimally. Indicators of program success are more dominant in terms of increasing income, not yet measuring more optimally on the quality of attitudes and behavior of women as individuals and as mothers.
Implications/Applications: There is even a change of attitude and behavior because there is a change of role in the family.
Indonesian women need to be enhanced its role in development, remembering 49.9% of the population of Indonesia are women. Of these, 65% are adaptable with productive 15-64 years and are not optimally driven because of their low quality. The female potential is a large national asset, which must be developed to build Indonesia. If the countryside does not have the opportunity to develop its potential, then it will be a burden to reduce the output of the development that has been achieved.
The optimalization of populations as the source of the development of the country's efforts to improve the quality of life, both men and women, to play a role in development. Gender-oriented development based on the principle of equal cooperation gained access, role, control and beneficiary participation in development programs should be shared jointly.
Eight targets of Millennium development are included in the Millennium Declaration
- Tackling poverty and hunger.
- Achieving basic education for all.
- Encouraging gender equality and empower women.
- Reducing infant mortality rate.
- Children and maternity mothers.
- Fighting HIV / AIDS, Malaria and other infectious diseases
- Ensuring environmental sustainability.
- Developing global partnership.
This program is one of the efforts to developing human resources and natural resources and environment to realize and develop healthy and prosperous families for the development of village and / or sub-district community, with women as their mobilizer. In line with this, the demands of the Women's Empowerment, Welfare and Child Protection programs become the institution's mandate, and the demands of the MDGs in the context of poverty alleviation to be resolved, the P2WKSS program needs to be revitalized.
General Purpose of P2WKSS Integrated Program is to increasing the role of women in development in order to realize quality families
- Improving the health status of women
- Improving the status of women's education
- Increasing women's knowledge and skills in productive economy
- Increasing women's participation in environmental conservation
- Increasing women's active role in community development
- Increasing the active role of women in understanding national insight.
P2WKSS program targets are women with very low welfare (Pre-Prosperity / KS I economic reasons) with program coverage covering 100 households with social, economic, health and education priorities. Criteria for KK targeted families are really poor, low-educated (especially not able to read and write) have less healthy behavior ..
Garut regency is one area that incessant to coaching P2WKSS. Sindang Sari Village is a village located at the foot of Mount Cikuray Cigedug District Garut regency. This village is the leading village of Garut Regency in the program of increasing the role of women. There are three rural groups assessed in this women's upgrading program. Villages located in mountainous, urban and coastal areas. Sindangsari village including villages in the mountainous region, Garut regency chose the village of Sindang Sari as a pilot village in P2WKSS Program with the following considerations:
- Community education background are still low, resulting in low community human resources as well;
- There are still many houses that are not suitable for habitation;
- Most of the people do not have family latrines;
- Unpredictable home page, lack of utilization of yard area;
- There is still a slum environment;
- People's awareness of self-help and Gotong Royong is still low;
- Lack of understanding of justice and gender equality and women's empowerment;
- Clean Water Facility is still lacking;
- Lack of potential community or natural potential to increase the family economy (Family Economic Business)
The previous research the researchers studied was about the Empowerment Model of Poor Women Based on Rural Utilization of Rural Poverty Alleviation (Study on Merapi Slope of Yogyakarta Special Region). A model of empowerment of poor women is needed so that poor women are actively able to participate in the utilization of rural resources. The strengthening of poor women is at the core of women's empowerment and will be optimal if women are given equal opportunities with men in the utilization of rural resources. In the first year of research phase, the development and pilot model of poor women empowerment based on rural resource utilization of research area.1,2
The second prior research is about the Study of Women Empowerment in Small Medium Enterprises Development (SME) in Garut Regency. Stated in his research that all Garutan batik entrepreneurs are women, because women are known to be good, leisure and persevering to increase family income, clever in financial management, marketing and management of small enterprises that are household.3,4,5
The third study on the empowerment of women in this P2WKSS program, the authors studied the thesis of entitled "Empowering Women in P2WKSS Program in Kejiwan Village, Susukan Sub-district of Cirebon Regency" explained that Kejiwan Village is the 1st National champion village in P2WKSS Program his. In the Dea thesis it is argued that all indicators of the P2WKSS Program's objectives are good enough, but the problem is that after the Village has been abandoned by the program counterparts, bad habits are done again including the independence of women in trying to be down again.6
Dea 2014. argued in the conclusion that the return of women to the old lifestyle due to the unsustainable P2WKSS program and the process of community self-sufficiency that should be done by the government gradually to the point of leaving the village in a condition that is self-sufficient and the standard of living of the community has increased, in fact are not done. The process of community self-reliance should be the responsibility of BpPKB as a leading sector of P2WKSS program by involving village cadres and utilizing related UPTD-UPTD as facilitators. As long as the process of empowerment is not interrupted until the P2WKSS program is completed but it can be sustainable. In addition, the concept of government belonging to the community in the reinventing government where it is better to give authority to the community to serve itself than the government that provides services can also be created.
According to Dea 2014, the barriers to social change in Kejiwan Village are: cultural barriers, social barriers, organizational barriers, and psychological barriers. Based on the results of this study, this organizational barrier plays a very important role in the continuity of P2WKSS program at the time of implementation or post-program is completed because communication and self-sufficiency of the community is disconnected after the program is completed from the local government of Cirebon regency with the village government of Kejiwan.
This research is actually because of the interest of the research results of the three theses above which the result is more emphasizing the empowerment of women by increasing their independence in increasing family income. So the economic aspect becomes an indicator in the success of the program. The authors see city district governments focus more on achieving P2WKSS goals with physical improvements and improving women's independence by increasing women's ability to earn income for families. Whereas in P2WKSS objectives before productive economy there are goals above that is improvement of health status and education status of woman.
Sindang Sari village is the leading village of Bandung Regency as well as the village kejiwan in Cirebon regency. The author wants to know:
- How is the stages of women empowerment in P2WKSS program in Sindang village, Cigedug sub-district, Garut regency conducted by BPPKB Garut regency?
- What impacts occur after the empowerment of women who are more emphasis on productive economic effort and involvement in physical development in the village Sindang Sari District Cigedug Garut regency?
The concept of empowerment is a concept of planned change. Social change is a study of social dynamics. The term of social change is taken from English, that is social change. In the beginning, social change was defined by Ibnu Khaldun in Martono as follows, "Society historically engaged From the nomadic society to the resident (settled) people (called the urban community). "7
"Social change as a distribution of adjustments that apply to the patterns of interaction between individuals as social units in a society."8 Furthermore, "Social change as an important change of social structure includes patterns of behavior and social interaction, including norms, values, and cultural phenomena."9
According to Martono, "Social change can be imagined as a change that occurs within or includes the social system. More precisely, there is a difference between the state of a particular system in different time periods." Concerning this social change Sztompka explains, "the basic concept of social change concerns three things: first, the study of differences; Second, the study should be done at different times; And third, observations on the same social system.
Furthermore, explains that, "To be able to study social change, we must see the differences or changes in the condition of the objects that are the focus of the study. Secondly, the study of change must be seen in different time contexts, in other words it should involve comparative studies in the time dimension different. Third, the object to which the comparable focus must be the same object. "
In order for societies to make social change, Hagen argues that, "The process of change is closely related to the creative individual, who creates a special kind of social relationship over time, for which social change will not occur without any personality change."9 Hagen's theory puts education as a strategic position in social change or development. According to Hagen, "the starting point of social change is education to society in order to enhance the role of individuals and society through the utilization of their potential."9:
In conducting empowerment, he explained there are four stages in community empowerment, including:
- Selection of Location / Area The selection of the territory shall be conducted in accordance with criteria agreed by the institution, relevant parties and the community. The determination of important criteria for choosing the location is done as well as possible, so that the goal of community empowerment will be achieved as expected.
- Socialization of Community Empowerment Socialization is an effort to communicate activities to create a dialogue with the community. Through socialization will help to improve the understanding of the community and stakeholders about the planned community empowerment program and / or activity. The socialization process becomes very important, as it will determine the interest or interest of the community to participate (participate and engage) in the communicated community empowerment program.
Community Empowerment Process The nature of community empowerment is to improve the ability and independence of the community in improving their standard of living. In the process the community together does the following:
- Identifying and Reviewing the Potential Areas of Problems, And Their Opportunities This activity is intended for the community to be able and confident in identifying and analyzing the situation, both the potential and the problem. At this stage it is expected to obtain a description of the social, economic, and institutional aspects.
- Developing a Group Activity Plan, Based on Results, Includes: • Prioritizing and analyzing problems; • Identify the best alternative problem solving; • Identify available resources for problem solving; • Development of activity plans and organizing their implementation.
- Implementing the Group Activity Plan The plans that have been developed together with facilitation support from counterparts are then implemented in concrete activities while keeping in mind the realization and the initial plan. Included in this activity is the monitoring of the implementation and progress of the activities to the attention of all parties, Required.
- Monitoring The Participatory Monitoring And Evaluation Process (Pme) This PME is conducted in depth at all stages of community empowerment so that the process runs in accordance with its objectives. PME is a process of assessment, assessment, and monitoring of activities, both the process (implementation) and the results and its impacts can be prepared process improvement if necessary.
- Community Self-Establishment Sticking to the principle of community empowerment that aims to establish community and improve their standard of living, the direction of community self-reliance is in the form of assistance to prepare the community really able to manage their own activities. The process of community empowerment is closely related to internal and external factors. In this connection, although internal factors are very important as one form of self organizing from society, but we also need to pay attention to external factors. The process of community empowerment should also be accompanied by a multi-disciplinary team of facilitators. In its operations the community empowerment initiative will slowly be reduced and eventually stop. The role of the facilitating team will be met by the management of the group or other parties deemed able by the community. When is the timing of the facilitator team's resignation depends on the mutual agreement that has been established since the beginning of the program with the community. Although the team has already retreated, its members still play a role, ie as advisers or consultants when needed by the community. 10,11
Understanding of women's studies, on the one hand, can be seen as a novel whose focus on women's studies on the other hand can be seen historically. That is when the consciousness arises there will be sexymetric relationships. If so, the study of women according to Supramudyo1 can be identified as:
- Studies to gain an understanding of the development of asymmetric relationships based on gender, race, and class in society.
- Study to look for strategies that can alter the situation of asymmetric relationships to more symmetrical relationships.12
Gender according to Supramudyo, defined as "inherent traits in men and women, is constructed socially and culturally, forming social relationships that distinguish the functions, roles and responsibilities of each sex"12. In a positive development, keadilangender occurs when both parties can support each other to achieve a consensus and equality conditions. But what is more common with is gender bias, where there are conditions of injustice that can be: Relationships of Women's Assets in Politics and Bureaucracy. State Administration of Contemporary Issues.
- Direct, ie the different treatment of open and lasting, either due to behavior / attitude, norms / values, or rules that apply.
- Indirect, such as: the rules are the same, but the implementation is beneficial to certain sexes.
- Systemic, that is injustice rooted in history, norms or community structures that inherit discriminatory circumstances.13
This research was conducted in Sindang Sari village, Cigedug sub district, Gutut regency. Sindang Sari Village has an area of 300,080 hectares with mountain soil contour or can be classified as mountain village type consisting of 2 hamlets, 3 neighborhoods 7 RW, and 34 RT with boundaries as follows: north bordering with Cintanagara Village, south It borders with Sukahurip Village, the east is bordered by Ciparay Mountain, and the west is bordered by Cisurupan sub-district. The number of residents of Sindang Sari Village is 6,727 souls with 3332 female and 3395 inhabitants divided into 420 households (KK). In Desa Sindang sari is a type of underdeveloped village with P2WKSS built location of 316 ha. Women's 206 souls and 218 men. Rt assisted by 2 RT and 1 RW. Number of HHs supervised by 144 HHs. Family Pre KS 108 KK. KS Family stage I amounted to 4 families, family KS II did not exist and Family KS III + plus III amounted to 2 families.
The research approach used is case study approach with qualitative analysis method. Qualitative research is more desirable guidance direction of theoretical arrangement based on data. research design is descriptive, that is finding facts with interpretation depicting nature of some phenomenon of group or individual coming from result.14,15 Qualitative approach is used to express comprehensively and naturally about how women empowerment in P2WKSS program in Sindang Sari village, Cigedug District, Garut regency. In this research the researcher is the main instrument in data collection, while the focus of research is on the role of informants and informant experiences and the way they view women empowerment. Informants can also describe the phenomenon that occurs, causal relationships, trends, and culture that develops in the process of women's empowerment.
Researchers also put forward the objectivity and honesty aspect that is realized by explaining the purpose of the research to the informant. In addition, it keeps the identity of the informant, so the consequences of the results of this study have no impact on informants who have provided information. The data and information used in this research are derived from direct observation, interview notes, interview recordings, and photos of activities that are packaged in the form of documents and events that are then processed into data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Empowerment of Women in Sindang Sari Village Cigedug District Garut Regency
Selection of Locations / Areas
Sindang Sari Village was ratified as a P2WKSS Garu Regency by 2015 through Garut Regent Decree No. 147 / Kep.227 Bappeda / 2012About Sindang Sari Village Appointment Cigedug Subdistrict as Integrated Program Location Increasing Role of Women Toward a Healthy and Prosperous Family (P2WKSS) Year 2015. Based on interviews with informants of PKK District Team Leader Garut, P2WKSS location selection Garut regency because other regencies / cities usually point locations that are quite good and already semi-finished to be fostered. While the selection of P2WKSS location in Garut regency selected area that is really the most important area seen from the village infrastructure environment, the village administration, and the quality of its human resources (health, economy, and community education).
Socialization of Community Empowerment
Based on interviews with informants BPMPD Garut District, socialization program P2WKSS in Kejiwan Village done gradually, namely:
- The first stage, socialization in the team coordination program P2WKSS Garut regency.
- The second stage, socialization is done with P2WKSS Program Implementation Team,
- Third stage, socialization is done by involving all P2WKSS Program Coordination Team, P2WKSS Program Implementing Team, and community.
This stage is the last stage in the socialization of P2WKSS program. According to the informants of BPMPD, all the above stages are the core stages of the empowerment socialization process. Each stage of socialization is not done only once, if necessary can be done several times, especially the stage of socialization to the community until the community really understand what the purpose and purpose of the program P2WKSS.
According to the informant Secretary TP PKK Garut Regency, the first conducted in the stage of socialization of the community is the awareness of the community that there are problems to be solved both in himself, his family, and village environment. Then the community is invited to think of having a better future with ideal conditions sesuaidengan what is described by the socialization team. Furthermore, the community is given the motivation to make changes to himself, his family, and his village environment. Awareness is done among others are:
Natural Potential and Human Resources
In the stage of awareness of the potential of nature and human resources, the community is given an understanding of the condition of Sindang Sari Village which has a mountainous contour and what can be utilized from such village conditions. The community is also given an understanding of the human resources of Desa Sindang sari which has great potential to develop their village if they participate mutually in village development.
In the community awareness stage of gender equality, communities are encouraged to think about being more respectful of women, such as: women are not subordinate men, women have equal rights in education, women have the right to adequate livelihoods, and women's protection from practices Domestic Violence (Domestic Violence).
According to informants BPMPD Garut regency, the most difficult in the socialization stage is to provide awareness about the behavior of people who are less good. Differences in perspective and living standards of villagers with urban and governmental people are among the obstacles commonly encountered when socializing the P2WKSS program. Most societies have the following behaviors:
- Tend to surrender to the situation, characterized by: education of the majority of villagers graduated from elementary, poor, and classified as disadvantaged areas;
- Feel comfortable with conditions that are not ideal, such as: home environment is not maintained clean, one roof with livestock, village environment full of stagnant water.
- No strong motivation and effort to change his life for the better. According to the P2WKSS co-operative informants, they want to live a more prosperous life but face difficult economic, low education, and low accessibility to economic resources that ultimately lead them to surrender to the situation. Making a living just to meet the primary needs of everyday life without improving the quality of life for the better.
According to informants BPMPD Garut district, changing the condition of just a conscious into a new behavior and habits in society takes time and strategies tailored to the culture local.
Awareness of Health Problems
Based on information from provincial PKK informants, environmental health issues are a problem that can be directly measured by the Provincial P2WKSS assessment team because it can be seen by naked eye. Sindang Sari village health problems seen from the habit that does not give priority to Clean and Healthy Behavior (PHBS). This is indicated by the habit of the community, such as: defecating in any place, hanging clothes in front of the house, and storing cattle inside the house.
According to informants PKK Garut regency, health care awareness is the entrance for awareness of other fields. Health problems are an example that can be felt directly by the community.
Awareness of other economic issues
People are basically aware that their economic life must be better than before. They want a more prosperous life in the future. But having jobs as woven bamboo laborers, farm laborers, or small traders alone will not change their life dramatically to be much more prosperous.
Community Empowerment Process
After the socialization process is completed, the next process is to enter at the core of the empowerment process. As mentioned earlier, the nature of community empowerment is to improve the ability and independence of the community in improving their standard of living. Women become the focus of the P2WKSS coaching program because women are the husband's companion and the additional breadwinner needs to be upgraded. Women also can not be separated from his nature as a mother who educates his sons - daughters in order to improve their standard of living in the future, both in terms of health and welfare.
From the above description, the process of women's empowerment has been done quite well by Garut regency, but the emphasis is still more towards the productive economy. This indicates that the government is very difficult to change the mindset and behavior that has been embedded hereditary, so that the pattern of women's empowerment should be changed model and pattern if you want to change the mindset of women in poor areas.
Based on the results of research and discussion concluded that the empowerment of women in the program P2WKSS in Sindang Sari Village District Cigedug Garut Regency already meet the stage of empowerment, which consists of: Selection Location; Socialization of Community Empowerment; Community Empowerment Process: Participatory Village Situation Study, Group Development, Preparation of Implementation Plan and Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation of Participants; And Community Self-Establishment. The results achieved by the P2WKSS program in improving the productive economy and improving the physical village have increased rapidly.
From the results of health improvement research conducted by posyandu program, while giving understanding of healthy lifestyle is not given in depth, this condition is not too bad in Sindang Sari village because village condition in mountains tend to be more beautiful than lowland area. But in improving the educational status of women, the mindset and behavior of women in educating children and adolescents as a woman's primary obligation is untouched. Women are empowered more optimally in increasing family income.
- HastutiRespati Dyah, Model Pemberdayaan Perempuan Miskin Berbasis Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya Perdesaan Upaya Pengentasan Kemiskinan Di Perdesaan (Studi di Lereng Merapi Daerah Istimewa Yogjakarta), LaporanPenelitian, UniversitasNegeri Yogyakarta. 2009.
- Ranjbaran A., Investigation of Factors affecting in customer fundraising with emphasis on role of social marketing mass media in Saderat bank of Iran. UCT Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Research. 2014; 2(2):31-37.
- Hayati Amelia, Studi Terhadap Pemberdayaan Perempuan dalam Pengembangan Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM) di Kabupaten Garut, Makalah Seminar 11 December 2017, Universitas Padjajaran. 2007.
- Jenaabadi H., Issazadegan A., The analysis of personality features, coping strategies and stress relations in drug addicts. UCT Journal of Management and Accounting Studies. 2014; 2(1):22-26.
- Matandare M. A., Botswana Unemployment Rate Trends by Gender: Relative Analysis with Upper Middle Income Southern African Countries (2000-2016). Dutch Journal of Finance and Management. 2018; 2(2):04.
- Dea Angkasa Putri Supardi. Pemberdayaan Perempuan dalam Program P2WKSS di Desa Kejiwan Kecamatan Susukan Kabupaten Cirebon, LaporanPenelitian, Universitas Padjajaran. 2005.
- Nanang Martono,, Raja Grafindo Persada: Jakarta; 2011.
- K. Garna, Judistira., Percetakan Program Pascasarjana: Bandung; 1992.
- Anwar Alfabeta: Bandung; 2007.
- MardikantoTotokSoebiato Poerwoko, Alfabeta: Bandung; 2012.
- Osman S., Yang C. N. A. C., Abu M. S., Ismail N., Jambari H., Kumar J. A., Enhancing Students Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills through Bar Model Visualisation Technique. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education. 2018; 13(3):273-279.
- Wibawa, Samodra (ed). Graha Ilmu: Yogyakarta.
- Supromadyo, Gitadi Firm. State Administration: Contemporary Issues. Graha Ilmu: Yogyakarta; 2009.
- W Creswell, John, Pustaka Pelajar: Yogyakarta; 2010.
- Pérez Martínez, Armenio, Fernández Aimara Rodríguez, Aguilar Susana Hinojosa de, Gobernanza universitaria y valores: la funcin de control en la gestin universitaria. Opción. 2018; 34(86):176-200.
Anwar (2007). Management of Women’s Empowerment (Social Change through Vocational Skill Learning to Fisherman’s Family). Bandung. Alfabeta.
Creswell, J. W. (2010). Research Design Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Mixed. Yogyakarta. Pustaka Pelajar.
Dea Angkasa Putri Supardi (2005). Pemberdayaan Perempuan dalam Program P2WKSS di Desa Kejiwan Kecamatan Susukan Kabupaten Cirebon, LaporanPenelitian, Universitas Padjajaran.
Garna, J. K. (1992). Teori-Teori Perubahan Sosial. Bandung. Percetakan Program Pascasarjana.
Hastuti and Respati, D. (2009). Model Pemberdayaan Perempuan Miskin Berbasis Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya Perdesaan Upaya Pengentasan Kemiskinan Di Perdesaan (Studi di Lereng Merapi Daerah Istimewa Yogjakarta), LaporanPenelitian, UniversitasNegeri Yogyakarta.
Hayati, A. (2007). Studi Terhadap Pemberdayaan Perempuan dalam Pengembangan Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM) di Kabupaten Garut, Makalah Seminar 11 December 2017, Universitas Padjajaran.
Jenaabadi, H. and Issazadegan, A. (2014). The analysis of personality features, coping strategies and stress relations in drug addicts. UCT Journal of Management and Accounting Studies, 2(1):22–26.
Mardikanto, Totok, and Soebiato, P. (2012). Community Empowerment in Perspective of Public Policy. Bandung. Alfabeta.
Martínez, A. P., Fernández, A. R., and de Aguilar, S. H. (2018). Gobernanza universitaria y valores: la funcin de control en la gestin universitaria. Opción, 34(86):176–200.
Martono, N. (2011). Sociology of Social Change: Classical, Modern, Posmodern, and Pos colonial Perspectives. Jakarta. Raja Grafindo Persada.
Matandare, M. A. (2018). Botswana Unemployment Rate Trends by Gender: Relative Analysis with Upper Middle Income Southern African Countries (2000-2016). Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 2(2):04.
Osman, S., Yang, C. N. A. C., Abu, M. S., Ismail, N., Jambari, H., and Kumar, J. A. (2018). Enhancing Students Mathemat- ical Problem-Solving Skills through Bar Model Visualisation Technique. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 13(3):273–279.
Ranjbaran, A. (2014). Investigation of Factors affecting in customer fundraising with emphasis on role of social marketing mass media in Saderat bank of Iran. UCT Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Research, 2(2):31–37.
Supromadyo, Gitadi Firm (2009). Relationship of Male-Female Asymmetry in Politics and Bureaucracy. In Wibawa, S., editor, State Administration: Contemporary Issues, Yogyakarta. Graha Ilmu.
Wibawa, Samodra (ed). Administrasi Negara: Isu-isu Kontemporer. Yogyakarta. Graha Ilmu.