QATARI FEMALE MANAGERS IN A WORLD OF PATRIARCHY

Main Article Content

Noora Ahmed Lari

Keywords

Patriarchy, women empowerment, leadership, Qatar, gender equality

Abstract

Purpose: The State of Qatar has widely sought to include women in public life and has implemented several policies in order to improve gender equality in the workforce and fair distribution of development benefits. This study establishes how far the State of Qatar has achieved the equality of women in the workplace, since the initiation of new reform policies and agendas of modernisation in 1995. Qatari women in leadership positions still face major challenges in relation to cultural limitations and organisational constraints; these areas need to be further developed to improve the degree of gender equality and close the wide gap between the two genders in terms of economic rights and equal opportunities in the labour force.


Methodology: This paper uses semi-structured interviews which were conducted with twenty-five women aged all of whom held senior management positions in a range of civil society and public sector organisations in Qatar at the time of the interview. The twenty-five participants who participated in the study ranged in age from 34 to 61 years.


Main Findings: The findings suggest that Qatari women are helped by two forces: the support they are getting from the ruling family and the impact of reforms and social change in surrounding regions. Indeed, the slow pace of social reform is one of the common complaints of progressives.


Implications/Applications: Therefore, focused, procedural steps should be taken to enforce adherence to frameworks by governmental institutions and to amend existing legislation to tackle the challenges faced by women. These steps include implementing some social policy recommendations in terms of establishing and funding women’s civil society organisations, integrating an evaluation and monitoring system in governmental organisations, promoting work/family policies, and initiating a feminisation policy in government organisations.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 92 | PDF Downloads 82 XML Downloads 2 ePUB Downloads 6

References

1. Abbott, P., Wallace, C., & Tyler, M. (2005). An introduction to sociology. London, UK: Routledge.
2. Abdalla, I. A. (2015). Being and becoming a leader: Arabian Gulf women managers' perspectives. International Journal of Business and Management, 10(1), 25-39. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v10n1p25
3. Al Ghanim, K. A. (2008). Impediments to women’s leadership in the community. Supreme Council for Family Affairs, State of Qatar, Doha.
4. Al Muftah, H. A. (2010). How do Qatari Females Make it to the Top? An Examination of the Organizational Constraints to their Advancement. Hawwa, 8(2), 97-119. https://doi.org/10.1163/156920810X529958
5. Al Muhannadi, H. S. (2011). The role of Qatari women: Between tribalism and modernity (PhD thesis). Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
6. Al-Attiyah, A., & Nasser, R. (2014). Qatari women’s perceived rights in light of the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. The Social Sciences, 9(2), 91-97.
7. Altantsetseg, P., Chen, K. C., & Chang, M. L. (2017). Male and female leaders’ entrepreneurial leadership: A comparative study of Mongolia, Taiwan and Thailand on leader-member exchange. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(3), 144-152. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-3.3.4
8. Anggadwita, G., & Dhewanto, W. (2016). Women’s entrepreneurial intentions in micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Indonesia: The influence of environmental factors on perceived behavioral control. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 1(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-1.1.1
9. Anggraini, R. M., Hereyanto., and Bhakti, S. (2017). The Influence of Leadership Style and Organizational Climate on Performance Uay Banjarmasin. International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs, 2(5), 297-309. https://doi.org/10.24088/IJBEA-2017-25004
10. Bahry, L., & Marr, P. (2005). Qatari women: a new generation of leaders? Middle East Policy, 12(2), 104-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1061-1924.2005.00205.x
11. Ball, S. J. (1990). Politics and policy making in education: Explorations in policy sociology. London, UK: Routledge.
12. Barbour, R. S. (2001). Checklists for improving rigour in qualitative research: a case of the tail wagging the dog? Bmj, 322(7294), 1115-1117. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7294.1115
13. Bernard, M. (2000). Women ageing changing identities, challenging myths. New York, NY: Routledge.
14. Berrebi, C., Martorell, F., & Tanner, J. C. (2009). Qatar's labor markets at a crucial crossroad. The Middle East Journal, 63(3), 421-442. https://doi.org/10.3751/63.3.14
15. Bilal, S., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2017). The role of employee’s mindfulness and human resource development climate towards public leadership behavior-analyzing the moderating impact of emotional capital. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(5), 248-254. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-3.5.4
16. Bo Shing, L. A., & Xiaodie, P. J. (2017). Exploring the relationship between leadership, organizational culture, trust, and effectiveness of knowledge sharing by forced learning. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(2), 89-104. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-3.2.4
17. Bradley, P. (2005). Women and the Press: The Struggle for Equality. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
18. Broadbridge, A., & Hearn, J. (2008). Gender and management: New directions in research and continuing patterns in practice. British Journal of Management, 19, S38-S49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2008.00570.x
19. Coleman, I. (2004). The payoff from women’s rights. Foreign Affairs, 80(80). https://doi.org/10.2307/20033977
20. Davidson, & Cooper, (1992). Shattering the glass ceiling: The woman manager. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(2), 191-193.
21. Embassy of the State of Qatar in Washington, D.C, (2011). Qatari women. Retrieved from http://www.qatarembassy.net/women.asp
22. ESCWA. (2006). Report on Arab women conditions: Women’s movement in the Arab world. New York, NY: United Nations.
23. Felder, D., & Vuollo, M. (2008). Qatari women in the workforce. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/working_papers/2008/RAND_ WR612.pdf.
https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1291424
24. Fincher, L. H. (2014). Leftover women: The resurgence of gender inequality in China. London, UK: Zed Books.
25. Fondas, N., & Wiersema, M. (1997). Changing of the guard: The influence of CEO socialization on strategic change. Journal of Management Studies, 34(4), 561-584. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00063
26. Golkowska, K. U. (2014). Arab women in the Gulf and the narrative of change: The case of Qatar. Interdisciplinary Political and Cultural Journal, 16(1), 51-64. https://doi.org/10.2478/ipcj-2014-0004
27. Grown, C. Gupta, G. R., & Khan, Z. (2003). Promises to keep: Achieving gender equality and empowerment of women. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women.
28. Hairudinor., Hidayati, N., Muspiron., Tampubolon, E., & Humaidi. (2017). The Influence of Transformational Leadership and Compensation on Psychological Well-Being (Study at Private Hospital Nurses in South Kalimantan Province). International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs, 2(5), 317-326. https://doi.org/10.24088/IJBEA-2017-25006
29. Hammersley, M., & Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography Principles in Practice. London, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203944769
30. Henderson, C., & Rajakumar, M. (2010). Qatari Voices. Doha, Qatar: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Publishing.
31. Ibarra, H., Carter, N. M., & Silva, C. (2010). Why men still get more promotions than women. Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 80-85.
32. ITUC. (2009). Gender (in) equality in the labour market: an overview of global trends and developments. Retrieved from http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/GAP-09_EN.pdf
33. Macionis, R. (1995). A re-evaluation of the economic consequences of divorce. American Sociology Review, 61, 528-536. https://doi.org/10.2307/2096363
34. Madsen, S. R. (2010). Leadership development in the United Arab Emirates: The transformational learning experiences of women. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(1), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1177/1548051809345254
35. Pappe, A. (2005). The modern middle East. London, UK: Routledge.
36. Pimonratanakan, S., Intawee, T., Krajangsaeng, K., & Pooripakdee, S. (2017). Transformational leadership climate through learning organization toward the organizational development. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 3(6), 284-291. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-3.6.3
37. Qatar General Secretariat for Development Planning, (2011). Qatar National Development Strategy 2011-2016. Retrieved from http://www.gsdp.gov.qa/gsdp_vision/docs/NDS_EN.pdf
38. Richardson, D. (1993). Women, motherhood, and childrearing. London: Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-22622-1
39. Rijal, S. (2016). The influence of transformational leadership and organizational culture on learning organization: A comparative analysis of the IT sector Thailand. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 2(3), 121-129.
https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-2.3.3
40. Rosener, J. (1990). Ways women lead. Harvard Business Review, 68(6), 119-25.
41. Said-Foqahaa, N., & Maziad, M. (2011). Arab women: Duality of deprivation in decision-making under patriarchal authority. Hawwa, 9(1-2), 234-272. ttps://doi.org/10.1163/156920811X578539
42. Sejera, S. G. (2018). Culturally derived leadership qualities: Dispositional resilience among societies. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies, 4(2), 81-89. https://doi.org/10.20474/jabs-4.2.3
43. Sharabi, H. (1988). Neopatriarchy: A theory of distorted change in Arab society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
44. Sobh, R., Belk, R., & Gressell, J. (2010). The scented winds of change: conflicting notions of modesty and vanity among young Qatari and Emirati women. ACR North American Advances.
45. Sturges, J. (1999). What it means to succeed: Personal conceptions of career success held by male and female managers at different ages. British Journal of Management, 10(3), 239-252. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00130
46. Supreme Council for Family Affairs. (2010). Woman and man in the state of Qatar: A statistical profile. Retrieved form http://www.qsa.gov.qa/eng/GeneralStatistics.htm
47. Weichselbaumer, D., & Winter‐Ebmer, R. (2005). A meta‐analysis of the international gender wage gap. Journal of Economic Surveys, 19(3), 479-511. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0950-0804.2005.00256.x
48. Williams, J., Bhanugopan, R., & Fish, A. (2011). Localization of human resources in the State of Qatar: Emerging issues and research agenda. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 4(3), 193-206. https://doi.org/10.1108/17537981111159966
49. World Bank, (2004). Gender and development in the Middle East and North Africa: Women in the public sphere. MENA Development Report, Retrieved form https://bit.ly/2XUngRP