Main Article Content

Mark Kasa
Chong Jia Xin
Sherrymina Kichin
Kashif Hussain


Flow, Personality, Turnover Intention, Hotel industry, Hotel Employees, Mediator


Purpose of the Study: In the hotel industry, personality brings an impact on the perception of turnover intention among employees. The lack of past studies makes this present study become important to ensure employees’ performance and productivity are at highest level while reducing their turnover intention. Secondly, exhaustive review of past literature revealed that lack of studies that examined flow as mediator between personality and turnover intention in eastern phenomena, the element of positive psychology of flow necessary to be investigated. This study aims to determine whether employees’ personalities have significant relationship with the turnover intention, with mediating variable of flow which was underpinned with the person-environment fit theory to investigate the outcomes.

Methodology:  This study implemented a quantitative method whereby the questionnaires were given out to the hotel’s employees in Sarawak. All data were analysed using SPSS software version 23.

Results:  This study provides contributions to the hotel industry that are interested to identify prominent elements that influence, correlate and contribute to the possible outcomes of personality, flow and turnover intention among hotel employees in the context of eastern understanding.

Implications: The flow associated with an employee personality and turnover intention. Meanwhile, the hotel’s human resource practitioners advise to always implement better working practices in recruitment or training functions to ensure the right personality to work on specific tasks are being employed and lead to lower turnover intention.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 43 | PDF Downloads 42 XML Downloads 1 ePUB Downloads 6


1. Akerstedt T., Ingre, M., Broman, J.E. & Kecklund, G. (2008). Distributed sleep in shift workers, day workers and insomniacs. Chronobiol Int, 25(2), 333–348.
2. Anderson, S. E., Coffey, B. S., & Byerly, R. T. (2002). Formal Organizational Initiatives and Informal Workplace Practices: Links to Work–Family Conflict and Job-Related Outcomes. Journal of Management, 28(6), 787–810.
3. Bakker, A. B. (2005). Flow among music teachers and their students: The crossover of peak experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(1), 26–44.
4. Bakker, A. D. (2005). Job resources buffer the impact of job demands on burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 170–180.
5. Bakker, A.B. and Demerouti, E. (2008), Towards a Model of Work Engagement. Career Development International, 13, 209-223.
6. Bakker, A.B., & Leiter, M. P. (2010). Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (Eds.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
7. Bakker, A.B., Schaufeli, W.B., Leiter, M.P. & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress, 22, 187–200.
8. Cooper, D., & Schindler, P. (2008). Business research methods (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
9. Costa, P.T., JR., & McCrae, R. R. & M. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
10. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York, NY: Harper Corlins.
11. Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
12. Csikszentmihalyi, M., Abuhamdeh, S., & Nakamura, J. (2005). Flow. In Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 598–608). New York, NY: Guilford Publications, Inc.
13. De Cieri, H., & Bardoel, E. A. (2009). What does “work-life management” mean in China and Southeast Asia for MNCs? Community, Work and Family, 12(2), 179–196.
14. Felstead, A. J. (2002). Opportunities to work at home in the context of work-life balance. Human Resource Management Journal, 12(1), 54–76.
15. French, J. R. P., Jr., Caplan, R. D., & Harrison, R. V. (1982). The mechanisms of job stress and strain. London: Wiley.
16. Gallup. (2006). Gallup study: engaged employees inspire company innovation: national survey finds that passionate workers are most likely to drive organizations forward. The Gallup Management Journal.
17. Hair, J. A. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
18. Halpern, D. (2005). How time-flexible work policies can reduce stress, improve health, and save money. Stress and Health, 21(3), 157–168.
19. Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692.
20. Kasa, M., & Hassan, Z. (2013). Antecedent and Consequences of Flow: Lessons for Developing Human Resources. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 97, 209–213.
21. Kasa, M. & Hassan, Z. (2016). The Role of Flow Experience among the Hotel Employees in Sarawak. Tourism Development Journal, 14(1), 98–111.
22. Kasa, M. & Hassan, Z. (2017). Burnout Dimensions with Work-Family Conflict among Hotel Employees: Flow Experience as Mediating Role. Journal of Management & Marketing Review, 2(2), 1–7.
23. Kelloway, E.K., Gottlieb, B.H., & Barham, L. (1999). The source, nature, and direction of work and family conflict: A longitudinal Investigation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 377–346.
24. Langelaan, S., Bakker, A. B., van Doornen, L. J. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement: Do individual differences make a difference? Personality and Individual Differences, 40(3), 521–532.
25. Macey W.H. & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.
26. McCrae, R. R. & John, O. P. (1992). An introduction to the Five-Factor Model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 175–215.
27. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
28. Parasuraman, S., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2002). Toward reducing some critical gaps in work–family research. Human Resource Management Review, 12(3), 299–312.
29. Perrons, D. (2003). The new economy and the work-life balance: Conceptual explorations and a case study of new media. Gender, Work and Organization, 10(1), 65–93.
30. Pervin, L. A. (1989). Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
31. Preacher, K.J. & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behaviour Research Methods, 36(4), 717–731.
32. Robinson, D., Perryman, S. & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement. Institute for Employment Studies, 408. Retrieved from
33. Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. & Rhenen, W. V. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 30(7), 893–917.
34. Simpson, R. (2000). Presenteeism and the impact of long hours on manage. In J. Winstanley, D. and Woodall (Ed.), Ethical Issue in Contemporary Human Resource Management (pp. 156–171). Macmillan: London.
35. Sonnentag, S. (2003). Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: A new look at the interface between nonwork and work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 518–528.
36. Swartz-Kulstad, J.L., & Martin, W. E. (2000). Culture as an essential aspect of person-environment fit. In W. E. M. J. & J. L. Swartz-Kulstad (Ed.), Person-environment psychology and mental health: Assessment and intervention (pp. 169–195). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
37. Takahashi M., Tanigawa, T., Tachibana, N., Mutou, K., Kage, Y., Smith, L. & Iso, H. (2005). Modifying effects of perceived adaption to shift work on health, wellbeing, and alertness on the job among nuclear power plant operation. Individual Health, 43(1), 171–178.
38. Tinsley, H. E. A. (2000). The congruence myth: An analysis of the efficacy of the person environment fit models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(2), 147–179.
39. Voydanoff, P. (2005). Toward a conceptualization of perceived work-family fit and balance: A demands and resources approach. Family, Journal of Marriage and, 67, 822–836.
40. Walsh, W. B., Craik, K. H., & Price, R. H. (2000). Person-environment psychology: Models and perspectives (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
41. White, M. H. (2003). High-performance management practices, working hours and work-life balance. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 41, 175–195.
42. Wirtz, A., Giebel, O., Schomann, C. & Nachreiner, F. (2008). The inteference of f
43. Yoo, K.-H., & Gretzel, U. (2011). Influence of personality on travel-related consumer-generated media creation. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 609–621.