Methodology: The methodology being used to analysis are an ordinary least square model (OLS) and fixed-effect model. The analysis was conducted in Malaysia for a period of 10 years from 2007 to2016. 10 Islamic banks in Malaysia were chosen to be tested for its performance. The study examines internal factors such as bank size, capital adequacy, liquidity, credit risk, and expense management and external factors such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and inflation effect on Islamic Bank’s performance in terms of return on asset and return on equity.

Result: The findings showed that only capital adequacy and inflation significantly affect the Islamic bank’s performance. However, bank size, liquidity, credit risk, expense management, and Gross Domestic Product were found to be insignificantly affecting the Islamic bank’s performance. The analysis was carried out by applying ordinary least square model (OLS) regression and fixed-effect model.

Applications: This research can be used for universities, teachers, and students.

Novelty/Originality: In this research, the model of the Determinants of Islamic Banking Performance: An Empirical Study in Malaysia is presented in a comprehensive and complete manner.


  1. Abduh, M., & Idrees, Y. (2013). Determinants of Islamic banking profitability in Malaysia. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 204-210.
  2. Abreu, M., & Mendes, V. (2001, May). Commercial bank interest margins and profitability: evidence for some EU countries. In Pan-European Conference Jointly Organised by the IEFS-UK & University of Macedonia Economic & Social Sciences, Thessaloniki, Greece, May (pp. 17-20).
  3. Aburime, T. (2008). Determinants of bank profitability: company-level evidence from Nigeria. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1106825
  4. Ahmed, E., Rahman, Z., & Ahmed, R. I. (2006). Comparative analysis of loan recovery among nationalized, private, and Islamic commercial banks of Bangladesh. BRAC University Journal, III(1), 35.
  5. Ainley, M. (1997). Under a veil of regulation. The Banker, 147(860), 73–74.
  6. Akhtar, M. F., Ali, K., & Sadaqat, S. (2011). Factors influencing the profitability of Islamic banks of Pakistan. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 66, 125-132.
  7. Akkizidis, I., & Khandelwal, S. K. (2008). Credit Risks in Islamic Finance. In Financial Risk Management for Islamic Banking and Finance (pp. 109-147). Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230598751_4
  8. Ali, K., Akhtar, M. F., & Ahmed, H. Z. (2011). Bank-specific and macroeconomic indicators of profitability-empirical evidence from the commercial banks of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(6), 235-242.
  9. Al-Omar, F., & Abdel-Haq, M. (1996). Islamic banking: Theory, practice & challenges. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press/London & New York: Zed Books.
  10. Angbazo, L. (1997). Commercial bank net interest margins, default risk, interest-rate risk, and off-balance sheet banking. Journal of Banking & Finance, 21(1), 55-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4266(96)00025-8
  11. Aref, A. (2014). Impact of Internal Factors on Bank Profitability: Comparative Study between Saudi Arabia and Jordan. Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 4(1). 125-140
  12. Ariff, M. (1988). Islamic Banking. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 2, 48–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8411.1988.tb00200.x
  13. Asma’ Rashidah Idris, F. F. A., Asari, H., Taufik, N. A. A., Salim, N. J., Mustaffa, R., & Jusoff, K. (2011). Determinant of Islamic banking institutions’ profitability in Malaysia. World Appl. Sci. J, 12, 01-07.
  14. Asutay, M., & Izhar, H. (2007). Estimating the profitability of Islamic banking: evidence from bank Muamalat Indonesia.
  15. Athanasoglou, P. P., Brissimis, S. N., & Delis, M. D. (2008). Bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability. Journal of international financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 18(2), 121-136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intfin.2006.07.001
  16. Athanasoglou, P., Delis, M., & Staikouras, C. (2006). Determinants of bank profitability in the South Eastern European region.
  17. Azhar Rosly, S., & Afandi Abu Bakar, M. (2003). Performance of Islamic and mainstream banks in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Economics, 30(12), 1249-1265. https://doi.org/10.1108/03068290310500652
  18. Baral, K. J. (2007). Health check-up of commercial banks in the framework of CAMEL: A case study of joint venture banks in Nepal. Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, 2(1), 41-55. https://doi.org/10.3126/jnbs.v2i1.55
  19. Bashir, A. (2000). Determinants of Profitability and Rates of Return Margins in Islamic Banks: Some Evidence from the Middle East, Grambling State University. Mimeo.
  20. Bashir, A. H. M. (2001). Assessing the performance of Islamic banks: Some evidence from the Middle East. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, 3.
  21. Bashir, A. H. M. (2003). Determinants of profitability in Islamic banks: Some evidence from the Middle East. Islamic economic studies, 11(1), 31-57.
  22. Ben Naceur, S. (2003, November). The determinants of the Tunisian banking industry profitability: Panel evidence 1980-2000. In Papier présenté à la 11ème Conférence de l'Economic Research Forum (ERF), Marrakech, novembre. Voir: www. erf. org. eg.
  23. Ben Naceur, S. & Omran, M. (2008). The effects on bank regulation, competition, and financial reforms in MENA banks’ profitability. Working Paper, Economic Research Forum.
  24. Berger, A. N. (1995). The relationship between capital and earnings in banking. Journal of money, credit and Banking, 27(2), 432-456. https://doi.org/10.2307/2077877
  25. Birhanu, T. (2012). Determinants of commercial banks profitability: An empirical evidence from the commercial banks of Ethiopia.
  26. Bordeleau, É. & Graham, C. (2010). The impact of liquidity on bank profitability (No. 2010, 38). Bank of Canada working paper.
  27. Bourke, P. (1989). Concentration and other determinants of bank profitability in Europe, North America and Australia. Journal of Banking & Finance, 13(1), 65-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4266(89)90020-4
  28. Camilleri, S. J. (2005). An analysis of the profitability, risk and growth indicators of banks operating in Malta.
  29. Chua, Z. (2013). Determinants of Islamic Banks Profitability in Malaysia. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2276277
  30. Čihák, M., & Hesse, H. (2010). Islamic banks and financial stability: An empirical analysis. Journal of Financial Services Research, 38(2-3), 95-113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10693-010-0089-0
  31. Cooper, M. J., Jackson, W. E., & Patterson, G. A. (2003). Evidence of predictability in the cross-section of bank stock returns. Journal of Banking & Finance, 27(5), 817-850. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4266(01)00263-1
  32. Dietrich, A., & Wanzenried, G. (2011). Determinants of bank profitability before and during the crisis: Evidence from Switzerland. Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, 21(3), 307-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intfin.2010.11.002
  33. Dietrich, A., & Wanzenried, G. (2014). The determinants of commercial banking profitability in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 54(3), 337-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.qref.2014.03.001
  34. Eichengreen, B., & Gibson, H. D. (2001). Greek banking at the dawn of the new millennium.
  35. El Moussawi, C., & Obeid, H. (2011). Evaluating the productive efficiency of Islamic banking in GCC: A non-parametric approach. International Management Review, 7(1), 10.
  36. Elgari, M. A. (2003). Credit risk in Islamic banking and finance. Islamic Economic Studies, 10(2), 1-25.
  37. Flamini, V., Schumacher, M. L., & McDonald, M. C. A. (2009). The determinants of commercial bank profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa (No. 9-15). International Monetary Fund. https://doi.org/10.5089/9781451871623.001
  38. Gerrard P, Cunningham JB (1997). “Islamic banking: a study in Singapore”, International Journal of Bank Marketing. 15(6): 204-216. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329710184433
  39. Girard, E., Nolan, J., & Pondillo, T. (2010). Determinants of emerging markets’ commercial bank stock returns.
  40. Gul, S., Irshad, F., & Zaman, K. (2011). Factors Affecting Bank Profitability in Pakistan. Romanian Economic Journal, 14(39).
  41. Guru, B. K., Staunton, J., & Balashanmugam, B. (2002). Determinants of commercial bank profitability in Malaysia. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 17, 69-82.
  42. Hanif, M., Tariq, M., & Tahir, A. (2011). Comparative performance study of conventional and Islamic banking in Pakistan.
  43. Hasan, M. M., & Dridi, J. (2010). The effects of the global crisis on Islamic and conventional banks: A comparative study.
  44. Hassan, M. K., & Bashir, A. H. M. (2003, December). Determinants of Islamic banking profitability. In 10th ERF annual conference, Morocco (pp. 16-18).
  45. Heffernan S, Fu M (2008). The determinants of bank performance in China, Working Paper Series, (WP-EMG-03-2008), Cass Business School, City University, UK. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1239466
  46. Ika, S. R., & Abdullah, N. (2011). A comparative study of financial performance of Islamic banks and conventional banks in Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(15).
  47. Iravani, M. R., Niknejadi, F., & Jahandoost, Z. (2015). The Relationship between Age and Job Satisfaction Consultants Government Girls High School in Isfahan in 2012-2013 Academic Year. Health, 70(22.65), 24.
  48. Iqbal, Z. (1997). Islamic financial systems. Finance and Development, 34(2), 42.
  49. Iqbal, Z. (2007). Challenges facing Islamic financial industry. Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance, 3(1), 1-14.
  50. Jaffar, M., & Manarvi, I. (2011). Performance comparison of Islamic and Conventional banks in Pakistan. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11(1).
  51. Jaramillo, L. E. S. (2018). Malware Detection and Mitigation Techniques: Lessons Learned from Mirai DDOS Attack. Journal of Information Systems Engineering & Management, 3(3), 19. https://doi.org/10.20897/jisem/2655
  52. K commercial banks: panel evidence from the period 1995-2002. In Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference (Vol. 45, pp. 1-27).
  53. Kahf, M. (1999). Islamic banks at the threshold of the third millennium. Thunderbird International Business Review, 41(4‐5), 445-460. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.4270410409
  54. Kanwal, S., & Nadeem, M. (2013). The impact of macroeconomic variables on the profitability of listed commercial banks in Pakistan. European journal of business and social sciences, 2(9), 186-201.
  55. Karbhari, Y., Naser, K., & Shahin, Z. (2004). Problems and challenges facing the Islamic banking system in the west: The case of the UK. Thunderbird International Business Review, 46(5), 521-543. https://doi.org/10.1002/tie.20023
  56. Kaya, T.Y, 2002. Determinants of Profitability in Turkish Banking Sector. In Turkish Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, No: 2002/1.
  57. Kosmidou, K., Tanna, S., & Pasiouras, F. (2005, June). Determinants of profitability of domestic UK commercial banks: panel evidence from the period 1995-2002. In Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference (Vol. 45, pp. 1-27). [66]
  58. Mamatzakis, E., & Remoundos, P. (2003). Determinants of Greek commercial banks, 1989-2000. Spoudai, 53(1), 84-94.
  59. Luo, C., Li, M., Peng, P., & Fan, S. (2018). How Does Internet Finance Influence the Interest Rate? Evidence from Chinese Financial Markets. Dutch Journal of Finance and Management, 2(1), 01. https://doi.org/10.20897/djfm/89590
  60. Mansoor Khan, M., & Ishaq Bhatti, M. (2008). Islamic banking and finance: on its way to globalization. Managerial Finance, 34(10), 708-725. https://doi.org/10.1108/03074350810891029
  61. Masood, O., Chichti, J. E., Mansour, W., & Iqbal, M. (2009). "Islamic bank of Britain" case study analysis. International Journal of Monetary Economics and Finance, 2(3-4), 206-220. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMEF.2009.029059
  62. Menicucci, E., & Paolucci, G. (2016). The determinants of bank profitability: empirical evidence from European banking sector. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, 14(1), 86-115. https://doi.org/10.1108/JFRA-05-2015-0060
  63. Metawa, S. A., & Almossawi, M. (1998). Banking behavior of Islamic bank customers: perspectives and implications. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 16(7), 299-313. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329810246028
  64. Moin, M. S. (2008). Performance of Islamic banking and conventional banking in Pakistan: a comparative study.
  65. Molyneux, P., & Thornton, J. (1992). Determinants of European bank profitability: A note. Journal of banking & Finance, 16(6), 1173-1178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4266(92)90065-8
  66. Murerwa, C. B. (2015). Determinants of banks’ financial performance in developing economies: evidence from kenyan commercial banks (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa).
  67. Murzinova, K. E. A., Koblanova, A., & Ansabayeva, D. A. A. (2018). Prosodical means applied in communicative relations. Opción, 34(85-2), 61-96.
  68. Nahang, F., & Araghi, M. K. (2013). Internal factors affecting the profitability of City Banks. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5(12), 1491-1500.
  69. Olson, D., & Zoubi, T. A. (2008). Using accounting ratios to distinguish between Islamic and conventional banks in the GCC region. The International Journal of Accounting, 43(1), 45-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intacc.2008.01.003
  70. Ordinary Least Squares regression (OLS). (n.d.). Retrieved from xlstat: https://www.xlstat.com/en/solutions/features/ordinary-least-squares-regression-ols
  71. Pasiouras, F., & Kosmidou, K. (2007). Factors influencing the profitability of domestic and foreign commercial banks in the European Union. Research in International Business and Finance, 21(2), 222-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2006.03.007
  72. Petersen, M. A., & Schoeman, I. (2008, July). Modelling of banking profit via return-on-assets and return-on-equity. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering (Vol. 2, pp. 1-6).
  73. Rashid, M., & Nishat, A. (2009). Disparity of performance indicators of Islamic banks: Study on bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(8), 52. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v4n8p52
  74. Rasiah, D. (2010). Review of literature and theories on determinants of commercial bank profitability. Journal of Performance Management, 23(1), 23.
  75. Revell, J., 1979. Inflation and financial institutions. Financial Times, London.
  76. Rhoades, S. A., & Rutz, R. D. (1982). Market power and firm risk: a test of the ‘quiet life’ hypothesis. Journal of Monetary Economics, 9(1), 73-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3932(82)90051-4
  77. Rose, P. (1999). Commercial bank management. U.S: McGraw-Hill International.
  78. Said, R. M., & Tumin, M. H. (2011). Performance and financial ratios of commercial banks in Malaysia and China. International Review of Business Research Papers, 7(2), 157-169.
  79. Samad, A. (2004). Performance of Interest-free Islamic banks vis-à-vis Interest-based Conventional Banks of Bahrain. International Journal of Economics, Management and Accounting, 12(2).
  80. San, O. T., & Heng, T. B. (2013). Factors affecting the profitability of Malaysian commercial banks. African Journal of Business Management, 7(8), 649-660.
  81. Sayilgan, G., & Yildirim, O. (2009). Determinants of Profitability in Turkish Banking Sector: 2002-2007. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 28, 207-214.
  82. Short, B. K. (1979). The relation between commercial bank profit rates and banking concentration in Canada, Western Europe, and Japan. Journal of Banking & Finance, 3(3), 209-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4266(79)90016-5
  83. Smirlock, M. (1985). Evidence on the (Non) Relationship Between Concentration and Profitability in Banking, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 17, No.1, pp.69-83. https://doi.org/10.2307/1992507
  84. Srairi, S. A. (2010). Cost and profit efficiency of conventional and Islamic banks in GCC countries. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 34(1), 45-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11123-009-0161-7
  85. Staikouras, C. K., & Wood, G. E. (2011). The determinants of European bank profitability. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 3(6). https://doi.org/10.19030/iber.v3i6.3699
  86. Sufian F. (2011). Profitability of the Korean Banking Sector: Panel Evidence on Bank-Specific and Macroeconomic Determinants. Journal of Economics and Management, Vol. 7, No. 1, 43-72.
  87. Sufian, F., & Habibullah, M. S. (2009). Bank specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability: Empirical evidence from the China banking sector. Frontiers of Economics in China, 4(2), 274-291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11459-009-0016-1
  88. Swarnapali, R. M. N., & Swarnapalia, R. M. N. C. (2014, February). Firm Specific Determinants and Financial Performance of Licensed Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Management and Economics (Vol. 26, p. 27).
  89. Vargas-Hernández, J. G. (2016). The Question of Changing the Concept, Role and Functions of State. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 4(1), 08-19. https://doi.org/10.18510/hssr.2016.412
  90. Vong, P. I., & Chan, H. S. (2009). Determinants of bank profitability in Macao. Macau Monetary Research Bulletin, 12(6), 93-113.
  91. Wasiuzzaman, S., & Tarmizi, H. A. B. A. (2010). Profitability of Islamic banks in Malaysia: an empirical analysis. Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance, 6(4), 53-68.
  92. Yenesew, A. (2014). Determinants of financial performance: a study on selected micro finance institutions in Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, Jimma University).
  93. Zeitun, R. (2012). Determinants of Islamic and conventional banks performance in GCC countries using panel data analysis. Global Economy and Finance Journal, 5(1), 53-72.