Main Article Content

Laila Meiliyandrie Indah Wardani
Muhamad Syafiq Anwar


Quality of Work Life, Psychological Capital, Work Engagement, Positive Psychology, Developing Country


Purpose: This study realizing the importance of psychological capital on employee's as well as individual components, this study addresses to investigate the mediating role of quality of work-life in the relationship between psychological capital and work engagement.

Methodology: The data collected from 356 employees of multinational companies in Indonesia, with technique cluster sampling.  There are three measuring instruments used in this study namely the Quality of Work Life Model by Walton, which consists of 35 items; Implicit Psychological Capital (IPCQ) 24 items by Harm and Luthan, and The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) by Schaufeli and Bakker, which consists of 17 items. The analysis used mediation regression model no. 4 V3.0 PROCESS by Andrew F. Hayes.

Main Findings: The results of this study indicate the quality of work-life partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and work engagement. Psychological capital has both direct and indirect impacts to work engagement and quality of work-life as mediators. The result found a positive relationship between psychological capital and work engagement, psychological capital, and quality of work-life, also work engagement and quality of work-life.

Applications: This study throws light on literature psychology, especially the industry and organization field. Also, as a torchlight in companies and employees to create and implement strategies and programs for the development of existing human resources. So that employees have the expected performance so that the goals of the company can achieve and employees feel involved in the company's development and generate feelings of confidence and sense of worth on his job. The results of this study also give some contributions to developing the existing body of knowledge, especially in positive psychology literature.

Novelty/Originality: The critical role of Quality of work-life as a mediator on the relationship between psychological capital and work engagement among employees in Developing Countries.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 41 | PDF Downloads 27 XML Downloads 3 ePUB Downloads 3


1. Akbar, M. R. (2013). Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi Terhadap Employee Engagement (Studi Pada Karyawan Pt.Primatexco Indonesia Di Batang). Journal of Social and Industrial Psychology, 2 (1), 10-18.
2. Alqarni, S. A. Y. (2016). Quality of Work Life as a Predictor of Work Engagement among the Teaching Faculty at King Abdulaziz University. International journal of humanities and social sciences, 6(8), 119 – 121.
3. Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., and Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological capital: Combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48, 677-693.
4. Mangkunegara, A. P., & Octorend, T. R. (2015). Effect of work discipline, work motivation, and job satisfaction on employee organizational commitment in the company (Case study in PT. Dada Indonesia). Universal Journal of Management, 3(8), 318-328.
5. Anwar, F. (2017, Ocktober 29). Engagement tenaga kerja milenial Indonesia hanya 25%. Retrieved from
6. Astuti, Ni Luh Putu, Mimba, Ni Putu S. H., dan Ratnadi, Ni Made Dwi. (2016). Pengaruh work engagement pada bendahara pengeluaran dengan kepemimpinan transformasional sebagai pemoderasi. E-Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Udayana, 5(12), 4057-4082.
7. Bakker, A. B. 2011. An Evidence-Based Model of Work Engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265-269.
8. Baker, A. B., and Sanz-Vergel, A. I. (2013). Weekly work engagement and flourishing: The role of hindrance and challenge job demands. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 397-409.
9. Bakker, A. B, Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P, and Tarris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisation, 22(3), 187-200.
10. Bakker, A. B., and Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: state of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328.
11. Carnegie, D. (2017). Mayoritas milenial galau dalam pekerjaan, kamu juga? Ditemu kembali dari
12. Costantini, A., De Paola, F., Ceschi, A., Sartori, R., Meneghini, A. M., & Di Fabio, A. (2017). Work engagement and psychological capital in the Italian public administration: A new resource-based intervention program. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 43(0), 1-11,
13. Dawar, S., Singh, H. & Dawar, P. (2014). Dynamics of Quality of Work Life: A Study of Life Insurance Sector. Asian Journal Management, 5(3), 312-314.
14. Erbasi, A. & Ozbek, M. C. (2016). The Effect of Psychological Capital on Work Engagement. Australian Academy of business and economic review, 2(4), 276-284.
15. Fernandes, R. B., Martins, B. S., Caixeta, R. P., Costa Filho, C. G. D., Braga, G. A., and Antonialli, L. M. (2017). Quality of work life: an evaluation of the Walton model with an analysis of structural equations. Revista Espacios, 38(3).
16. Gallup. 2017. State of the global workplace. New York: Gallup Press.
17. Gibson, A. & Hicks, R. E. (2018). Psychological Capital and Core Self-Evaluations in the Workplace. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 10(2), 15-24.
18. Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Bonnaud-Antignac, A., Mokounkolo, R., & Colombat, P. (2013). The mediating role of organizational justice in the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work-life: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 50(10), 1359-1367.
19. Gupta, M., Shaheen, M. & Das, Manoj. (2018). Engaging employees for the quality of life: mediation by psychological capital, The Service Industries Journal, 39(5-6), 403-419.
20. Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizaional Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250-279.
21. Harms, P. D., Krasikova, D. V., and Luthans, F. (2018). Not Me, But Reflects Me: validating a Simple Implicit Measure of Psychological Capital. Journal Of Personality Assessment, 100(5), 551-562.
22. Harms, P. D., Vanhove, A., & Luthans, F. (2017). Positive Projections and Health: An Initial Validation of the Implicit Psychological Capital Health Measure. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 66(1), 78-102.
23. Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., and Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-Unit-Level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268-279.
24. Indrianti, R & Hadi, C. (2012). Hubungan antara modal psikologis dengan keterikatan kerja pada perawat di instalasi rawat inap rumah sakit jiwa Menur Surabaya. Jurnal Psikologi Industri dan Organisasi, 1(2), 110-115.
25. Kanten, Selahattin, and Omer, Sadullah. (2012). Empirical research on relationship quality of work-life and work engagement. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Science, 62(24), 360-366.
26. Karatepe, O. M., and Talebzadeh, N. (2016). An empirical investigation of psychological capital among flight attendants. Journal of Air Transport Management, 55 (C), 193-202.
27. Khaleghkhah A, Babelan A & Karmianpour G. (2017). Prediction of job engagement of teachers based on psychological capital and psychological hardiness. Revista De La Universidad Del Zulia, 8(22), 39-40.
28. Khan, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. The Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.
29. Khera, A. (2015). Impact of Quality of Work Life on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on Nurses of Government Hospital in Chandigarh (India). The International Journal Of Business & Management, 3(8), 34-45.
30. Kim, T., Karatepe, O. M. K., Lee, G., Lee, S., Hur, K., and Xijing, C. (2017). Does the hotel employees' quality of work-life mediate the effect of psychological capital on job outcomes?. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(6), 1638-1657.
31. Klatt, A. L., Murdick, G. R., and Schuster, F. E.. (1985). Human Resource Management. Ohio: Charter E. 32. Lehtinen, T. A. (2013). Quality of Working Life and Engagement in an envolving Hospitality Subsector: The Case Of Hostel. Thesis. Portugal: Instituto Universitario of Lisboa.
33. Long, J. S. (1983). Confirmatory factor analysis: A Preface to LISREL. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
34. Luthans, F. & Youssef, C. M. (2004). Human, Social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 143-160.
35. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572.
36. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M. & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. New York: Oxford University Press.
37. Markos, S., and Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee Engagement: The Key to Improving Performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89-96.
38. Mirkamali, S. M. and Thani, F. N. (2011). A study on the quality of work life (QWL) among fculty members of university of Tehran (UT) and Sharif university of technology (SUT). Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 179-187.
39. Mortazavi, S. Yazdi, S. V. S., and Amini, A. (2012). The Role of the Psychological Capital on the Quality of Work Life And organization performance. Interdisciplinary journal of contemporary research in business, 4(2), 206 - 217.
40. Nafei, W. (2015). Meta-analysis of the impact of psychological capital on quality of work life and organizational citizenship behavior: Astudy on sadat city university. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(2), 42-59 .
41. Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., and Swamy, D. R. (2013). A review of the literature on quality of work-life. International Journal for Quality Research, 7(2) 201-214.
42. Nguyen, T. D, and Nguyen, T. T. M. (2011). Psychological Capital, Quality of Work Life, and Quality of Life of Marketers: Evidence from Vietnam. Journal of macro marketing, 32(1), 87-95.
43. Nugroho, D. A. S., Mujiasih, E., & Prihatsanti, U. (2013). Hubungan antara psychological capital dengan work engagement pada karyawan PT. Bank Mega Regional Area Semarang.. Jurnal Psikologi Undip, 12(2), 191–202.
44. Nurendra, A. M. and Purnamasari, W. (2017). Hubungan antara kualitas kehidupan kerja dan keterikatan kerja pada pekerja wanita. Indigenous: Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi, 2(2), 148-154.
45. Osborne, S., and Hammoud, M. S. (2017). Effective employee engagement in the workplace. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 16(1), 50-67.
46. Priatrini, P. S. (2011). Keterikatan karyawan merupakan alternative, ketika kepuasan kerja dan komitmen tidak cukup untuk meningkatkan kinerja orgnaisasi. PIRAMIDA-Jurnal Kependudukan dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia, 14(1), 1-12.
47. Rachmawati, F. (2016). Pengaruh pelatihan kerja dan motivasi kerja terhadap kinerja karyawan pada PT. Trias Sentosa, Krian Sidoarjo. Agora, 4(2), 259-264.
48. Ratanjee, V., and Emond, L. (2013, December 17). Why Indonesia must engage younger workers. Business Journal. Retrieved from
49. Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A. (2017). Organizational Behavior. 17th edition. England: Pearson Education Limited.
50. Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The Drives of Employee Engagement. Brighton: Institute for Employment Studies.

51. Sakovska, M. (2012). Importance of Employee Engagement in Business Environment: Measuring the engagement level of administrative personnel in VUC Aarhus and detecting factors requiring improvement. Denmark: Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences at Aarhus University.
52. Saks, M. A. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.
53. Salanova, S. & Shaufeli, W. B. (2008). A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator between Job Resources and Proactive Behavior. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), 116-131.
54. Sari, D. S. A. (2016). The Role of Quality of Work Life (QWL) As Mediator in the Relationship of Psychological Capital (PsyCap) with the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) On Civil Servants (PNS) in Buleleng. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Peneliti Muda Psikologi, 1(1), 85-93.
55. Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Uwes Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Preliminary Manual [Version 1, November 2003]. Utrecht: Utrecht University, Occupational Health Psychology Unit.
56. Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship wih burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational behavior, 25, 293-315.
57. Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2010). The conceptualization and measurement of work. In A.B. Bakker & M. P Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research and research. New York: Psychology Press.
58. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., and Bakker, A. (2002). The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout a Two-Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71-92.
59. Seppala, E. & Moeller, J. (2018). 1 in 5 employees is highly engaged and at risk of burnout. Harvard Business Review. Advanced Online Publication.
60. Shabnambidarian, Parivashjafari, and Naderghologhourchian. (2015). The relationship between quality of lifeland psychological capital in faculty members of Islamic azad university in Iran. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 17(7), 116-120. Doi: 10.9790/487X-1771116120
61. Sihag, P., & Sarikwal, L. (2014). Impact of Psychological Capital on Employee Engagement: A Study of IT Professionals in Indian Context. Management Studies And Economic System, 1(2), 127-139.
62. Simon, J. C. & Buitendach, J. H. (2013). Psychological capital, work engagement, and organizational commitment amongst call center employees in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1-12.
63. Sonnentag, S. (2011). Research on work engagement is well and alive. The European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 29-38.
64. Sriwidodo, U. dan Haryanto, A. B. (2010). Pengaruh kompetensi, motivasi, komunikasi dan kesejahteraan terhadap kinerja pegeawai dinas Pendidikan. Jurnal Manajemen Sumber Daya ManusiaI, 4(1), 47-57.
65. Syarizka, D. (2018, April 03). Sumber daya manusia:Keterikatan karyawan tentukan kemampuan adaptasi perusahaan. Retrieved from dari
66. Tahir, R. (2013). Keterikatan karyawan dan kontribusinya dalam meningkatkan kinerja perusahaan. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen & Bisnis, 4(1), 1-11 .
67. Tripathi, J. P. & Sharma, S. (2016). The key to improving performance: employee engagement. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 18(10), 19-25.
68. Van Der Schoor, S. C. M. (2015). Teacher engagement and psychological capital. Master Theses. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit.
69. Wah, L. (1999). Engaging employees a big challenge. Management Review, 88(9), 10.
70. Walton, R. (1980). Quality of work life activities: A research agenda. Professional Psychology, 11(3), 484-493.
71. Widiasih, P. A. (2017). Peran kepemimpinan profetik dan pemberdayaan psikologis dalam membangun keterikatan kerja karyawan. Jurnal Ilmiah Penelitian Psikologi: Kajian Empiris & Non-Empiris, 3(1), 31-41, DOI:
72. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., and Demerouti, E. (2011). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183-200.
73. Yakin, M., and Erdil, O. (2012). Relationships Between Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement and the Effects on Job Satisfaction: A Survey on Certified Public Accountants. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 370-378.
74. Yildiz, E. (2018). A Case Study on Relationships Between Psychological Capital, Personality, and Organizational Commitment. International Journal of Business Administration, 9(2), 99-122.
75. Youssef, C. M. & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management, 33(5), 774-800.