Main Article Content
Students, Attitude, Celebrity Characteristics, Social Media, Culture Influences, Celebrity Endorsements
Purpose of the study: The study aims to identify the factors that influence students’ attitudes when celebrity endorsements are used through social media. It seeks to determine how effective endorsements are from the consumers’ point of view.
Methodology: A study model was developed to show the effect of different factors on students’ attitudes. A quantitative approach was used for data collection to support the model. This study employed a survey method using a questionnaire to gather information from participants.
Main findings: The findings show celebrity characteristics and social media advertisements affect students’ attitudes. The results were positive for students’ attitude towards celebrity endorsements through social media.
Applications of the study: The study provides insights into how businesses should plan marketing campaigns and influence students’ attitudes towards celebrity endorsements through social media. Companies are encouraged to use social networks to track and respond to the opinions of their customers in a timely manner.
Novelty/Originality of this study: There is a shortage of literature that is associated with celebrity endorsements through social media. This study aims to fill in the gap in knowledge and practice by identifying business opportunities and optimizing available marketing tools that can be used in order to gain a better image.
2. Al-Ahmadi, H. (2011) “Challenges facing women leaders in Saudi Arabia”, Human Resource Development International, 14(2), 149-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/13678868.2011.558311
3. Arora, A. &Sahu, K. (2013) “Celebrity Endorsement: An Effective Marketing Tool”, International Journal of Management Prudence, 5(2), 27-32.
4. Atay, E. (2011) “Celebrity Endorsements and Advertising Effectiveness: The Importance of Value Congruence”, Ph.D., University of Oregon.
5. Ayite, M. (2014), Customers’ Perceptions of American and Japanese Products in France Related to Cross- Cultural Miscommunications. Ph.D., North central University.
6. Barhemmati, N. & Ahmad, A. (2015), “Effects of Social Network Marketing (SNM) on Consumer Purchase Behavior through Customer Engagement”, Journal of Advanced Management Science, 3(4), 307-311. https://doi.org/10.12720/joams.3.4.307-311
7. Bhatt, N., Jayswal, R. & Patel, J. (2013), “Impact of Celebrity Endorser’s Source Credibility on Attitude towards Advertisements and Brands”, South Asian Journal of Management, 20(4), 74-95.
8. Brock, S. (2013), The Use of Social Media in Purchasing Decisions of Professional African American Women, PhD., Northcentral University.
9. Bruhn, M., Schoenmueller, V. & Schäfer, D. (2012), “Are social media replacing traditional media in terms of brand equity creation?”, Management Research Review, 35(9), 770-790. https://doi.org/10.1108/01409171211255948
10. Cavana, R.Y., Delahaye, B.L. & Sekaran, U. (2001), Applied business research: Qualitative and quantitative methods, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
11. Chan, K., Leung Ng, Y. & Luk, E. (2013), “Impact of celebrity endorsement in advertising on brand image among Chinese adolescents”, Young Consumers, 14(2), 167-179. https://doi.org/10.1108/17473611311325564
12. Chikandiwa, S., Contogiannis, E. & Jembere, E. (2013), “The adoption of social media marketing in South African banks”, European Business Review, 25(4), 365-381. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-02-2013-0013
13. Choi, S. & Rifon, N. (2012), “It Is a Match: The Impact of Congruence between Celebrity Image and Consumer Ideal Self on Endorsement Effectiveness”, Psychology& Marketing, 29(9), 639-650. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20550
14. Chow, Y. (2013), Building Religious Epistemic Capital among Financial Firms: A Study ofMalaysia's Islamic Wall Street. PhD., University of New York.
15. Cunningham, N. & Bright, L. (2012), “The Tweet Is in Your Court: Measuring Attitude Towards Athlete Endorsements in Social Media”, International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 4(2), 73-87.
16. Dom, S., Ramli, H., Chin, A. & Fern, T. (2016), “Determinants of the Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertisement”, The Journal of Developing Areas, 50(5), 526-535. https://doi.org/10.1353/jda.2016.0033
17. Etikan, I. (2016), “Comparision of Snowball Sampling and Sequential Sampling Technique”, Biometrics& Biostatistics International Journal, 3(1), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.15406/bbij.2016.03.00055
18. Friedman, H. and Friedman, L. (1979). Endorser effectiveness by product type. Journal of advertising research, 5(19), 63-71.
19. Gazal, K., Montague, I., Poudel, R. & Wiedenbeck, J. (2016), “Forest Products Industry in a Digital Age: Factors Affecting Social Media Adoption”, Forest Products Journal, 66(5-6), 343-353. https://doi.org/10.13073/FPJ-D-15-00007
20. Grainger, J. (2010),Social media and the fortune 500: How the fortune 500 uses, perceives and measures social media as a marketing tool, MBA. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
21. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (1998), Multivariate analysis, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
22. Hajli, N. (2014), “A study of the impact of social media on consumers”, International Journal of Market Research, 56(3), 387-404. https://doi.org/10.2501/IJMR-2014-025
23. He, W., Shen, J., Tian, X., Li, Y., Akula, V., Yan, G. & Tao, R. (2015), “Gaining competitive intelligence from social media data”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, 115(9), 1622-1636. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-03-2015-0098
24. Hofstede, G. (2011), “Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context”, Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014
25. Ilicic, J. & Webster, C. (2015), “Consumer values of corporate and celebrity brand Associations”, Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 18(2), 164-187. https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-06-2013-0037
26. Jin, C. (2010), “An empirical comparison of online advertising in four countries: Cultural characteristics and creative strategies”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 18(3-4), 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1057/jt.2010.18
27. Jin, S. & Phua, J. (2014), “Following Celebrities’ Tweets about Brands: The Impact of Twitter-Based Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Consumers’ Source Credibility Perception, Buying Intention, and Social Identification with Celebrities”, Journal of Advertising, 43(2), 181-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2013.827606
28. Kelly, L., Kerr, G. & Drennan, J. (2010),“Avoidance of Advertising in Social Networking Sites”, Journal of Interactive Advertising, 10(2), 16-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2010.10722167
29. Kowalczyk, C. & Royne, M. (2013),“The Moderating Role of Celebrity Worship on Attitudes toward Celebrity Brand Extensions”, The Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 21(2), 211-220. https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679210206
30. Liligeto, l., Singh, G. &Naz, R. (2014), “Factors influencing Consumer Perception (CP)towards TV and Newspaper Advertising”, The Journal of Pacific Studies,34(2), 63-85.
31. Littrell, R. & Bertsch, A. (2013),“UN Millennium Development Goals and gender equality in employment in the Middle East”, Foresight, 15(4), 249-263. https://doi.org/10.1108/fs-04-2012-0024
32. Maldonado, C. (2011), “The Effect of Cultural Orientation on Advertising Effectiveness. A Comparison among Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Mexicans”, Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, 15(Special Issue), 83-95.
33. Maoyan, Zhujunxuan & Sangyang (2014), “Consumer Purchase Intention Research Based onSocial Media Marketing”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(10), 92-97.
34. Moedu.gov.bh. (2018). [online] Available at: http://www.moedu.gov.bh/hec/page.aspx?page_key=HEIs-Statistics&lang=ar [Accessed 8 Sep. 2018].
35. Mohd Suki, N. (2014), “Does celebrity credibility influence Muslim and non-Muslim consumers’ attitudes toward brands and purchase intention?”, Journal of Islamic Marketing, 5(2), 227-240. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-04-2013-0024
36. Nekatibebe, T. (2012), Evaluating the Impact of Social Media on Traditional Marketing. BBA. Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences.
37. Neumayer, C. & Rossi, L. (2016), “15 Years of Protest and Media Technologies Scholarship: A Sociotechnicalm Timeline”, Social Media + Society, 2(3), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305116662180
38. Ohanian, R. (1990), “Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers' Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness”, Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 39-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1990.10673191
39. Okorie, N. (2012), “Multiple Uses of Celebrities in Brand Promotion: An Experimental Investigation”, Journalism and Communication, 7(2), 51-58.
40. Opuni, F., Asiedu, K. & Acheampong, I. (2014), “The Effect of Celebrity Endorsement on Product Purchase: The Case of Fan Milk, Fan Yogo, Special Ice Mineral Water and Root Extra Beer”, International Journal of Global Business,7(2), 34-56.
41. Petty, R., Cacioppo, J. & Schumann, D. (1983), “Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement”, Journal of Consumer Research, 10(2), 35-146. https://doi.org/10.1086/208954
42. Ravi, K. & Saxena, R. (2015), “Celebrity Star Association for Tacit Endorsement of Brands in Entertainment Context - An Experimental Study”, Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research, 4(1), 67-88.
43. Reeves, S. (2012),The Impact of Global Consumer Culture on Cultural Values Portrayed in Print Advertising in Japanese and American Magazines, Master of Arts in Communications, University of Hawai ‘I at Mānoa.
44. Roy, S., Guha, A. & Biswas, A. (2015), “Celebrity endorsements and women consumers in India: how generation-cohort affiliation and celebrity-product congruency moderate the benefits of chronological age congruency”, Marketing Letters, 26(3), 363-376. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-015-9354-1
45. Roy, S., Jain, V. & Rana, P. (2013), “The moderating role of consumer personality and source credibility in celebrity endorsements”, Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 5(1), 72-88. https://doi.org/10.1108/17574321311304549
46. Samat, M., Hashim, H. &Yusoff, R. (2014), “Endorser Credibility and Its Influence on the Attitude toward Social Media Advertisement in Malaysia, Society of Interdisciplinary Business Research, 4(1), 144-158.
47. Sassenberg, A., Verreynne, M. & Morgan, M. (2012), “A Sport Celebrity Brand Image: A Conceptual Model”, International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 17(2), 108-121.
48. Schlachte, C. (2014), Social Capital and Social Media: The Effects of Facebook Use on Social Capital and Perceived Community Involvement, Master of Arts, Boston University.
49. Sridevi, J. (2012), “Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in Brand Recall and Brand Recognition”, Zenith International Journal of Business Economics & Management Research, 2(5), 203-209.
50. Subhadip, R. (2012), “To Use the Obvious Choice: Investigating the Relative Effectiveness of an Overexposed Celebrity”, Journal of Research for Consumers, 22, 41-69.
51. Tripp, C., Jensen, T. & Carlson, L. (1994), “The Effects of Multiple Product Endorsements by Celebrities on Consumers' Attitudes and Intentions”, Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4), 535-547. https://doi.org/10.1086/209368
52. Williams, J. & Chinn, S. (2010), “Meeting Relationship-Marketing Goals through Social Media: A Conceptual Model for Sport Marketers”, International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(4), 422-437. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.3.4.422
53. Wilson, R. & Till, B. (2011), “Product placements in movies and on Broadway”, International Journal of Advertising, 30(3), 373-398. https://doi.org/10.2501/IJA-30-3-373-398
54. Yee, K. & Yazdanifard, R. (2013), “The Review of the Most Recent New Technologies that Changed the Face of Marketing Drastically”, International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2(10), 820-823.
55. Zipporah, M. & Mberia, H. (2014), “The Effects of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertisements”, International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(5), 178-188. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJAREMS/v3-i5/1250