Main Article Content

Abdul Sattar Abulbaqi Al-Azzawi


Brand Personality Dimensions, Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale, Nike, Multiple Regression, Factor Analysis


Purpose of the study: This Study helps consumers to differentiate between the products available in the same product category.

Methodology: The sample design which is used is Nike sportswear; the data were collected from 300 University of Bahrain students studying in Bahrain. In order to analyze the data, factor analysis and multiple regression techniques were applied.

Main Findings: The results indicated that four brand personality dimensions were extracted for the Nike sportswear brand named as Competence, Sincerity, Sophistication, and Excitement. The factors forming the brand personality of Nike were Logo, User Imagery and Advertisement Style.

Applications of this study: This study will enable the marketing practitioners to better understand the personality of Nike sportswear brand from the minds of consumers and better distinguish Nike brand from their competitors.

Novelty/Originality of this study: This study will benefit marketing practitioners to understand sportswear brands from the minds of consumers and distinguish their brand from the competitors based on brand personality dimensions, Aaker’s brand personality scale.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
Abstract 137 | PDF Downloads 142 XML Downloads 0 ePUB Downloads 7


1. Aaker, D. A (1996). Building Strong Brands. The Free Press, New York. http://pdfs.semanticschol
2. Aaker, J (1997). Dimension of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34(3), pp 347-357.
3. Aaker, J. L, and Schmitt, B (1997). The Influence of Culture on Self-expressive Use of Brands. Working Paper no. 274, Los Angeles: UCLA Anderson Graduate School of Management. https://www.researchgate .net/publication/334276377_Brand_personality_dimensions_of_Nike_sportswear_-an_empirical_analysis
4. Adamantios, D, Gareth, S and Ian, G (2005). The Impact of Brand Extension on Brand Personality: Experimental Evidence. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 39(1), pp129-149. 8/03090560510572052
5. Alt, M and Griggs, S (1988). Can a Brand be Cheeky?. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol.4, No.6, pp.9-16.
6. Batra, R, Donald, R.L and Dipinder, S (1993). The Brand Personality Component of Brand Goodwill: Some Antecedents and Consequences. In Brand Equity and Advertising, David A.Aaker and Alexander L.Biel, Eds.Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlsbaum Associates.
7. De Chernatony, L (1998). Defining a ‘Brand’: Beyond the Literature with Experts Interpretations. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 14, (5), pp 417-443.
8. Freling, T. H and Frobes, L. P (2005). An Empirical Analysis of the Brand Personality Effect. Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 14(7).
9. George, D and Mallery, P (2007). SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference14.0 Update. Seventh Edition, A Pearson Education Company.
10. Hair, J.F, Jr. Anderson, R.E, Tatham, R.L and Black, W.C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis. (Fifth Edition), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ence/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1519308
11. Johnson, L. W, Soutar, G. N and Sweeny, J. C. (2000). Moderators of the Brand Image/Perceived Products Quality Relationship. Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 7(6), pp 425 –433. 10.1057/bm.2000.34
12. Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring and Managing Customer Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57(1), pp 1-22.
13. Keller, K. L. (2008). Strategic Brand Management – Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity. Third edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
14. McCracken, G. (1986). Culture and Consumption: A Theoretical Account of the Structure and Movement of the Cultural Meaning of Consumer Goods. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.13, pp 71-84.
15. Mustamil, N, Chung, H.Y, Ariff, S.K, (2014). Determining Brand Personality of Nike Sports Shoes Using Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, Vol. 2-06, pp. 128-137. tswear_-an_em pirical_analysis
16. Okazaki, S (2006). Excitement or Sophistication? A Preliminary Exploration of Online Brand Personality. International Marketing Review, Vol. 23 (3), pp 279-303.
17. Plummer, J. T. (1985). Brand Personality: A Strategic Concept for Multinational Advertising. Marketing Educators Conference, Young and Rubica, 1 –31, New York. p7vc9du/Plummer-J-T-1985-Brand-personality-A-strategic-concept-for-multinational/
18. Rojas-Mendez, J.I., Erenchun-Podlech, I, Silva-Olave, E, (2004). The Ford Brand Personality in Chile. Corporate Reputation Review, Vol. 7, pp 232-251.
19. Smith, A.C.T, Graetz, B.R and Westerbeek, H.M (2006). Brand Personality in a Membership-Based Organization. Int. J. Nonprofit Volunt. Sect. Mark., Vol. 11, pp 251-266. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.or g/ea38/cb76fa8df1101b9432c1f1e4a7dd5a1be34b.pdf
20. Supphellen, M, and Grønhaug, K (2003). Building Foreign Brand Personalities in Russia: The Moderating Effect of Consumer Ethnocentrism. International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22 (2), pp 203-263. 080/02650487.2003.11072849
21. Thomas, B.J, Sekar, P.C (2008). Measurement and Validity of Jennifer Aaker’s Brand Personality Scale for Colgate Brand. Vikalpa, Vol. 33(3), pp 49-61.
22. Venable, B.T, Rose, G.M and Gilbert, F.W (2003). Measuring the Brand Personality of Non-Profit Organizations. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 30,pp 379-38. ea38/cb76fa8df1101b9432c1f1e4a7dd5a1be34b.pdf
23. Wells, W. D, Andriuli, F. J, Goi, F. Jand Seader, S (1957). An Adjective Check List for the Study of Product Personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 41(5), pp 317 – 319.