Main Article Content

Preeti Rai
Harsha Chatrath


A. barbadensis Mill, Saussurea obvallata, Lilium, soil temperature, soil viscosity, specific gravity, plant growth, photosynthesis


Purpose of the study: The main purpose of this study is to find out the effect of change in soil viscosity, soil temperature and specific gravity on growth of plants sown in the soil prepared from laboratory chemical waste collected from an educational institute and with the plants sown in normal soil.

Methodology: Three-three pots with different soil combinations mixed with solid and liquid chemical waste have been used for growing A. barbadensis Mill, Saussurea obvallata and Lilium plants. Observations were made every fifteen days for three months by checking plant height, the number of leaves, the color of leaves and soil temperature for understanding and comparison of plant growth with respect to variation in temperature. Later on density and viscosity of soils have also been checked with the help of specific gravity bottle and viscometer.

Main Findings: Plants' growth differs with variation in soil viscosity, soil temperature, and soil density. All plants cannot grow potentially at the same temperature, viscosity, and density. A. barbadensis Mill A4 has shown better growth with least viscosity and highest particle density of soil. Saussurea obvallata BK1 has shown better growth with least viscosity and least particle density of soil. Lilium L1 has shown better growth with all the moderate values of soil.

Applications of this study: This study helped to understand that all the plants have their own requirements of nutrients, nutrition and physical factors for their growth. This also helped to understand that although the soil has taken initially is the same, viscosity and density of the soil changes due the plants grown in it.

Novelty/Originality of this study: The use of chemical wastes is taken into consideration instead of fertilizers to reduce pollution.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 21 | PDF Downloads 17


1. Abdalla A M, Hettiaratchi D R P and Reece A R. (1969). The mechanics of root growth in granular media. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 14, 263–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(69)90126-7
2. Abu–Hamdah NH, Reeder RC. (2000). Soil thermal conductivity affects of density, moisture, salt concentration and organic matter. Soil science society of America Journal. 64(4):1285–1290. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.6441285x
3. Ågren, G. I. (2000). Temperature dependence of old soil organic matter. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 29(1), 55–55. https://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-29.1.55
4. Cornish, PS, So, HB, & McWilliam, JR. (1984). Effects of soil bulk density and water regimen on root growth and uptake of phosphorus by ryegrass. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(5), 631. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR9840631
5. Davies W J and Zhang J (1991) Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Molec. Biol. 42, 55–76. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.42.060191.000415
6. Donald R G, Kay B D and Miller M H (1987) The effect of soil aggregate size on early shoot and root growth of maize (Zea mays L.) Plant and Soil, 103, 251–259. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02370397
7. Dong, S., Scagel, C. F., Cheng, L., Fuchigami, L. H., & Rygiewicz, P. T. (2001). Soil temperature and plant growth stage influence nitrogen uptake and amino acid concentration of apple during early spring growth. Tree Physiology, 21(8), 541–547. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/21.8.541
8. Elizaberashivili ES, Urashadze TF, Elizaberashivili ME, et al. (2010). Temperature regime of some soil types in Georgia. Eurasian soil science. 43(4):427-435. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229310040083
9. Geiger R Aron RN, Todhunter P. (2003). The climate near the ground. Lanham, USA: Rownaan and little field publishers. p. 42–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.967
10. Goodman, A. (1999). The Effects of Soil Bulk Density on the Morphology and Anchorage Mechanics of the Root Systems of Sunflower and Maize. Annals of Botany. 83(3), 293–302. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1998.0822
11. Hatfield, J. L., & Prueger, J. H. (2015). Temperature extremes: Effect on plant growth and development. Weather and Climate Extremes. 10, 4–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2015.08.001
12. Hillel, D. (2005). Thermal Properties and Processes. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment. 156–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-348530-4/00523-3
13. J. Pietikäinen, M. Pettersson, and E. Bååth (2005) “Comparison of temperature effects on soil respiration and bacterial and fungal growth rates,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsec.2004.10.002
14. Lahti, M., Aphalo, P. J., Finer, L., Lehto, T., Leinonen, I., Mannerkoski, H., & Ryyppo, A. (2002). Soil temperature, gas exchange and nitrogen status of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings. Tree Physiology, 22(18), 1311–1316. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/22.18.1311
15. Liu, X., & Huang, B. (2005). Root physiological factors involved in cool-season grass response to high soil temperature. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 53(3), 233–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.03.016
16. Martias AD, Musil S. (2012). Temperature and thermal diffusivity within a range land soil near Oracle, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona–Nevada academy of science. 44(1):15-21. https://doi.org/10.2181/036.044.0103
17. Nabi, G., & Mullins, C. E. (2008). Soil Temperature Dependent Growth of Cotton Seedlings Before Emergence. Pedosphere, 18(1), 54–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(07)60102-7
18. Onwuka B, Mang B. (2018). Effects of soil temperature on some soil properties and plant growth. Adv Plants Agric Res. 8(1):34-37. https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.2018.08.00288
19. Probert RJ. (2000). The role of temperature in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination. In Fenner editor. Seeds: the ecology of regeneration in plant communities. England: CABI publishing. p. 261–292. https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851994321.0261
20. Sándor R, Fodor N. (2012). Stimulation of soil temperature dynamics with models using different concepts. The scientific world journal. 200:12–20. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/590287