Abstract

Purpose of the study: To investigate the causal effects of expatriates’ individual differences (measured by Job Insecurity, Personality, and Social Network) on their effectiveness (measured Coping Strategies, Job Performance, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior) in carrying out their responsibility to complete assignments whilst stationed and working in Malaysia.

Main Result: This conceptual paper will contribute to the body of knowledge on matters related to expatriates’ services in a cross-cultural and different environment, especially the difficulties they faced, roles played and contribution towards both the host country and the organization that they work for. The research gaps are on Coping Strategies is affecting the expatriate effectiveness and there are a few researches in the Malaysian context.

Applications: It is significant to resolve the problem faced by expatriates working and stationed in Malaysia. This paper is important for both current and future development for academics (for theoretical knowledge consolidation), practitioners (for multinational organizations) and the country’s economy. The contribution to the literature on expatriate is by offering new individual variables that are influencing their performance, which could be unique and still relevant to each other, and this consolidates and enriches the literature.

Novelty/Originality: This paper provides a better understanding on how the variables work on individual differences and how are they connected to effectiveness. It is also envisaged that the performance can be enhanced and multinationals will improve their profitability and thus contribute to the GDP of the country.

References

  1. Ashford, S. J, Lee, C & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, causes, and consequences of Job Insecurity: A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 22. (4): p. 803-829. https://doi.org/10.2307/256569
  2. Austin, J. T., & Villanova, P. (1992). The criterion problem: 1917-1992. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 836-874. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.836
  3. Badia, P, McBane., B, Suter, S., & Lewis, P. (1966). Preference behavior in an immediate versus variably delayed shock situation with and without a warning signal. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 847-852. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023867
  4. Barrick, M. R & Mount, M. K. 1991. The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance. Personnel Psychology. Vol. 41. p. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00688.x
  5. Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some exploration in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a development theory of communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x
  6. Black, J.S, Mendenhall, M & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16. (2): p. 291–317. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4278938
  7. Black, J.S & Stephens, G.K. (1989). The influence of the spouse on American expatriate adjustment and intent to stay in Pacific Rim overseas assignments. Journal of Management, Vol.15. p. 529–544. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638901500403
  8. Bolino, M.C. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: Good soldiers or good actors?. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24. (1): p. 82‐98. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1999.1580442
  9. Borg, I & Elizur, D. (1992). Job insecurity: Correlates, moderators, and measurement. International Journal of Manpower. Vol.13. p. 13-26. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437729210010210
  10. Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt., & W. C. Borman (ed.). Personnel selection in organizations,71-98. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  11. Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10, 99–109. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_3
  12. Bowling, N.A. 2010. Effects of job satisfaction and conscientiousness on extra‐role behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology. Vol. 25. (1): p. 119‐130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9134-0
  13. Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S.J. (1986). Prosocial organizational behaviors. Academy of Management Review, 11, 710 - 725. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1986.4283909
  14. Brown, M. (1994). The Fading Charms of Foreign Fields. Management Today, August. 48-51.
  15. Burt, R. S. 1992. Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
  16. Caligiuri P. M. (1997). Assessing expatriate success: Beyond just being there. In Saunders DM, Aycan Z (ed.), New approaches to employee management, 4, 117-140. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  17. Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette., & L. M. Hough (ed.). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed),1.
  18. Campbell, J. P., McCloy, R. A., Oppler, S. H., & Sager, C. E. (1993). Theory of Performance. In E. Schmitt, W. C. Borman, & Associates (ed.), Personnel selection in organizations, 35–70. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  19. Carver, C.S., & Connor-Smith, J. (2010). Personality and coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 679-704. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100352
  20. Cheng, Y., Chen, C. W., Chen, C. J., & Chiang, T. L. (2005). Job insecurity and its association with health among employees in the Taiwanese general population. Social Science and Medicine,61. (1), 41–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.11.039
  21. Code, S., & Langan-Fox, J. (2001). Motivation, cognition, and traits: predicting occupational health, well-being, and performance. Stress and Health, 17, 159-174. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.897
  22. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. The American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95-120. https://doi.org/10.1086/228943
  23. Connor-Smith, J., & Flachsbart, C. (2007). Relations between personality and coping: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1080-1107. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.93.6.1080
  24. Costa, P.T., Jr & McCrae, R.R. (1992(c)). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 4. p. 5-13. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.5
  25. De Witte, H, Sverke, M. Van Ruysseveldt, J, Goslinga, S, Chirumbolo, A, Hellgren, J &Naswall, K. 2008. “Job insecurity, union Support and intentions to resign membership: A psychological contract perspective”. European Journal of Industrial Relationships. Vol.14. p.85-103. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959680107086113
  26. Dickman, M., & Harris, H. (2005). Developing career capital for global careers: The role of international assignments. Journal of World Business, 40, 399–408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2005.08.007
  27. Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. In M. R. Rosenzweig & L.W. Porter (ed.). Annual review of psychology. Vol. 41. p. 417-440. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002221
  28. Eysenck, H. J. (1970). The structure of human personality (3rd ed.). London: Methuen.
  29. Eysenck, H. J. (1993). Creativity and personality: A theoretical perspective. Psychological Inquiry. Vol. 4. p. 147-246. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0403_19
  30. Eysenck, H. J & Eysenck, S. G. B. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck personality inventory. London: University of London Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/t02711-000
  31. Feather, N. T., & Rauter, K. A. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviors in relation to job status, job insecurity, organizational commitment and identification, job satisfaction and work values”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 81‐94. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915928
  32. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988b). Manual for the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. https://doi.org/10.1037/t06501-000
  33. George, J. M & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work - organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 112. p. 310-329. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.310
  34. Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. In L. Wheeler (ed.), Review of personality and social psychology. Vol. 2., p. 141-166. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  35. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 76. (6): p. 1360-1380. https://doi.org/10.1086/225469
  36. Granovetter, M. S. (1982). The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited. In P. V. Marsden & N. Lin (ed.), Social structure and network analysis. p. 105-130. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  37. Grant, L. (1996). A comprehensive examination of the latent structure of job performance. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, North Carolina StateUniversity, Raleigh.
  38. Greenhalgh, L., & Rosenblatt, Z. (1984). Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Academy of Management Review. 9, 438-448. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1984.4279673
  39. Hall, A., & Wellman, B. (1985). Social networks and social support. In S. Cohen., & S.L. Syme (ed.), Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.
  40. Harrison, D. A & Shaffer, M. A. (2005). Mapping the criterion space for expatriate success: Task-based and relationship-based performance, effort and adaptation. International Journal of Human Resources Management. Vol. 16. p. 1454-1474. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500220648
  41. Heaney, C, Israel, B & House, J. (1994). Chronic job insecurity among automobile workers: Effects on job satisfaction and health. Social Science and Medicine. Vol. 38. (10): p. 1431–1437. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90281-X
  42. Hobfoll, S.E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44. 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
  43. Hogan, J & Hogan, R. (1986). Hogan Personnel Selection Series Manual. Tulsa, OK: Hogan Assessment Systems.
  44. Hogan, J & Ones, D. S. (1997). Conscientiousness and integrity at work. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson & S. R. Briggs (ed.). Handbook of personality psychology. p. 849 – 870. New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50033-0
  45. Huang, T.J., Chi, S.C., & Lawler, J.J. (2005). The relationship between expatriate’s personality traits and their adjustment to international assignments. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16, 1656-1670. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190500239325
  46. Hurtz, G. M., & Donovan, J. J. (2000). Personality and job performance: The Big Five Revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85.869–879. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.6.869
  47. Jacobson, D. (1991). The conceptual approach to job insecurity. In Hartley, J., Jacobson, D., Klandermans, B., & van Vuuren, T. (ed.), Job insecurity: Coping with jobs at risk, 23-39. London: Sage.
  48. Jex, S.M and Britt, T.W. 2008. Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, John-Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
  49. Judge, T.A & Bono, J.E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 85. (5): p. 751-765. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.751
  50. Jung, C. G. (1923). Psychological types (H. B. Baynes, Trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace.
  51. Katz, D. (1964). The motivational basis of organizational behavior”. In Bowler, W.M, Halbesleben, J. R. B. and Paul, J. R. B. (2010). If you're close with the leader, you must be a brownnose: The role of leader-member relationships in the follower, leader, and coworker attributions of organizational citizenship behavior motives. Human Resource Management Review. Vol. 20. p.309–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.04.001
  52. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
  53. Kim, Y. Y. (1987). Facilitating immigrant adaptation: The role of communication. In T.L. A. M. B. Adelman (ed.), Communicating social support. p. 192-211. Beverly Hills: Sage publications, Inc.
  54. Kirmeyer, S. L & Lin, T.-R. (1987). Social support: Its relationship to observed communication with peers and superiors. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 30. (1): p. 138-151. https://doi.org/10.2307/255900
  55. Klaus, K.J. (1995). How to Establish an Effective Export Program Best Practices in International Assignment Administration. Employment Relations Today, 22(1), 59-79. https://doi.org/10.1002/ert.3910220109
  56. Laursen, B, Pulkkinen, L & Adams, R. (2002). The antecedents and correlates of agreeableness in adulthood. Developmental Psychology. Vol. 38. p.591-603. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.38.4.591
  57. Lazarus, R.S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  58. Lazarus, R.S. 1991. Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
  59. Lazarus, R.S. (1999). Stress and emotion. New York: Springer.
  60. Larsen, R.J., & Buss, D.M. (2010). Personality psychology: Domains of knowledge about human nature. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  61. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
  62. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1991). The concept of coping. In A. Monat & R. S. Lazarus (ed.), Stress and coping: An anthology (3rd ed). p. 183-206. New York: Columbia Press. https://doi.org/10.7312/mona92982-017
  63. Lee, C, Bobko, P & Chen, Z, X. (2006). Investigation of the multidimensional model of job insecurity in China and the USA. Applied Psychology. Vol. 55. p., 512-540. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00233.x
  64. Li, L.J., and Rothstein, M. (2009). The role of social networks on expatriate effectiveness, International Journal of Business Research. Vol. 9. (2): p. 94-108.
  65. Lin, N., Ensel, W. M., & Vaughn, J. C. (1981a). Social resources and occupational status attainment. Social Forces, 59, 1163-1181. https://doi.org/10.2307/2577987
  66. Lin, N., Ensel, W. M., & Vaughn, J. C. (1981b). Social resources and strength of ties. American Sociological Review, 46, 393-405. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095260
  67. Malaysia. (1999). Statistical Report Dated from 01/01/1998 to 31/12/1998. Kuala Lumpur: Immigration Department of Malaysia.
  68. Malaysia. (2008). Statistical Report Dated from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2007. Kuala Lumpur: Immigration Department of Malaysia.
  69. Malaysian Investment Development Authority (MIDA). (2015). Malaysia investment performance report: Driving sustainable growth.
  70. Marsden, P. V & Campbell, K. E. (1984). Measuring tie strength. Social Forces. Vol. 63. (2): p. 483-501. https://doi.org/10.2307/2579058
  71. McCrae, R.R & Costa, P.T, Jr.(1989(b)). Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Personality. Vol. 57. p. 17-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00759.x
  72. McCrae, R. R & Costa, P. T, Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 52. p. 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81
  73. McCrae, R.R & Costa, P.T, Jr. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist. Vol. 52. p. 509-516. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.5.509
  74. Monat, A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Stress and coping: An anthology (3rd ed.). New York: Columbia University. https://doi.org/10.7312/mona92982
  75. Morrison, E. W. (2002). Newcomers' relationships: The role of social network ties during Socialization. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 45. (6): p. 1149-1160. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069430
  76. Moorman, R.H & Blakely, G.L. (1995). Individualism‐collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 16. (2): p. 127‐142. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160204
  77. Motowidlo, S.J. (2003). Job performance, in Borman, W.C, Ilgen, D.R and Klimoski, R.J (ed). Handbook of Psychology: Industrial and Organizational Psychology. John Wiley & Sons Hoboken. NJ. p. 39-53.
  78. Motowidlo, S. J., & Schmit, M. J. (1999). Performance assessment in unique jobs. In D. R. Ilgen., & E. D. Pulakos (ed.). The changing nature of job performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development, 56–86. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  79. Motowidlo, S. J., Borman, W. C., & Schmit, M. J. (1997). A theory of individual differences in task and contextual performance. Human Performance, 10, 71-83. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_1
  80. Mount, M. K.,& Barrick, M. R. (1995). The Big Five personality dimensions: Implications for research and practice in human resources management. In K. M. Rowland., & G. Ferris (ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management, 13, 153-200. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  81. Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Vol. 66. p. 574-583. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040291
  82. Podolny, J. M & Baron, J. N. (1997). Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review. Vol. 62. (5): p. 673-693. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657354
  83. Podsakoff, P.M, and MacKenzie, S.B. (1994), Organizational citizenship behavior and sales unit effectiveness. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 31. (3): p. 351- 363. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224379403100303
  84. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26 (3), 513-563. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600307
  85. Podsakoff, N.P., Whiting, S.W., Podsakoff, P.M., & Blume, B.D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 122-141. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013079
  86. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  87. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's constructed clean-up time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1002_2
  88. Organ, D. W, Podsakoff, P. M & MacKenzie, S. B. 2006. Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. USA: Sage Publications, Inc.
  89. Osman-Gani, A. M & Rockstuhl, T. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of social network characteristics for expatriate adjustment and performance in overseas assignments: Implications for HRD. Human Resource Development Review. Vol. 7. (1): p. 32-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484307312182
  90. Rousseau, D.M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. Vol.2. p. 121-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384942
  91. Rusting, C. L, & Larsen, R. J. (1998). Personality and cognitive processing of affective Information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 24. p. 200–213. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167298242008
  92. Salgado, J. F. (1997). The five-factor model of personality and job performance in the European community. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 30-43. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.1.30
  93. Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L.R. (2003). The structure of personality attributes. In M. Barrick., & A.M, Ryan (ed). Personality and work, 1 - 29. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  94. Seibert, S. E, Kraimer, M. L & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 44. (2): p. 219-237. https://doi.org/10.2307/3069452
  95. Sekaran. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  96. Sekaran & Bougie. (2013). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. (7th ed.). Wiley, New York.
  97. Shaffer, M. A & Harrison, D. A. (2001). Forgotten partners of international assignments: Development and test of a model of spouse adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 86. (2): p. 238-254. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.2.238
  98. Sixth Malaysia Plan (SMP) 1991-1995. Report 1991/1995.
  99. Smith, C.A., Organ, D.W., & Near, J.P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653-663. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.4.653
  100. Somech, A & Drach‐Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra‐role behavior in schools: the relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy, and teachers' extra‐role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 16. (5): p. 649‐659. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00012-3
  101. Somerfield, M. R., & McCrae, R. R. (2000). Stress and coping research. American Psychologist, 55, 620-625. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.6.620
  102. Spector, P. 1998. “A control theory of the job stress process”. In C. Cooper (ed.), Theories of organizational stress. p. 153-169. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.
  103. Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia (SSM). (2007 to 2015). Annual Report 2007/2015.
  104. Sverke, M. Hellgren, J. (2002). The nature of job insecurity: Understanding employment uncertainty on the brink of a new millennium. Applied Psychology An International Review, 51, 23-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.0077z
  105. Sverke, M. Hellgren, J &Näswall, K. (2002). No security: a meta-analysis and review of job insecurity and its consequences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. Vol. 7. (3): p. 242-264. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.7.3.242
  106. Tellegen, A & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (‘‘absorption’’), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 83. p. 268-277. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0036681
  107. Thau, S, Aquino, K & Wittek, R. (2007). An extension of uncertainty management theory to the self: The relationship between justice, social comparison orientation, and antisocial work behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 92. p. 250-258. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.250
  108. Toh, S. M, Varma, A & DeNisi, A. S. (2004). Host country national helping on the adjustment of expatriates. Paper presented at the SIOP Conference, Chicago, Illinois. https://doi.org/10.1037/e518632013-438
  109. Turnipseed, D & Murkison, G. (1996). Organization citizenship behavior: an examination of the influence of the workplace. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. Vol. 17. p. 42–7. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739610111222
  110. Van Dyne, L, Graham, J.W & Dienesch, R.M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement, and validation. The Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 37. (4): p. 765‐ 802. https://doi.org/10.2307/256600
  111. Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2006). Compulsory citizenship behavior: theorizing some dark sides of the good soldier syndrome in organizations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior. Vol.36. (1): p. 77-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.2006.00297.x
  112. Wang, X. (2001). Expatriate social support network, psychological well-being, and performance: A theoretical examination and an empirical test. McGill University, Canada.
  113. Watson, D & Clark, L. A. (1997). Extraversion and its positive emotional core. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson, and S. R. Briggs (ed.), Handbook of personality psychology. p. 767-793. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012134645-4/50030-5
  114. Wiggins, J. S, Trapnell, P, & Phillips, N. (1988). Psychometric and geometric characteristics of the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS–R). Multivariate Behavioral Research. Vol. 23. p. 517–530. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2304_8
  115. Williams, R.S. (2002). Managing Employee Performance: Design and Implementation in Organizations. Thompson Learning, London.
  116. Williams, L & Anderson, S. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management. Vol. 17. p. 601-617. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700305
  117. Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on models of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2389.00151
  118. Zhang, M. Y., & Dodgson, M. (2007). A roasted duck can still fly away: A case study of technology, nationality, culture and the rapid and early internationalization of the firm. Journal of World Business, 42, 336–349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.04.005