Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEVISION COMMERCIALS IN URBAN AREA IN EGYPT
Corresponding Author(s) : Amiruddin Ahamat
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Purpose: This research examined the effects of television-advertising viewing on the perceived wealth in society and the materialistic value orientations among adolescents in urban Egypt.
Methodology: A survey on two hundred (200) adolescents aged eleven (11) to seventeen (17) was conducted in 2013. The urban sub-sample consisted of one hundred (100) respondents studying in Grade 7 and Grade 8 from a secondary school in Cairo city. The rural sub-sample consisted of one hundred (100) respondents studying in Grade 7 and Grade 8 from two (2) rural secondary schools in Alexandria.
Main Findings: In the survey among urban (Cairo) adolescent respondents, it was found that there were higher estimates among adolescents whose family-owned five (5) modern-day products namely desktop computers, cameras, air conditioners and motorcars. This finding is not surprising as urban dwellers have a higher income than rural folks which translated into the higher purchasing power of buying modern-day products. Urban adolescents’ families owned more than rural adolescents’ families in terms of modern-day products namely desktop computers, cameras, air-conditioners and motorcars except for handphones as there was almost no difference in terms of owning handphones for urban or rural adolescents’ families.
Implications: In addition, marketers are advised to consider placing advertisements on national television in their quest to reach out and promote their products and services to adolescents living in urban areas, as frequent watching of advertisements on television by adolescents in urban areas has a positive correlation with greater materialistic value.
Novelty: The importance of this study is that it has managed to present empirical evidence that television advertising has an influence on materialism and perceived level of wealth among adolescents in urban areas of Egypt.
Ahamat, A. (2014). Examining how management research learns from research in the physical sciences. Journal of Law & Social Sciences, 1(4), 1–4.
Ahamat, A. (2017). Is Islamic banking and finance doing enough? Shaping the sustainable and socially responsible investment community. Asian Social Science, 13(3), 170–176. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v13n3p170 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v13n3p170
Ahamat, A. (2019). Using Structured Interviews and Personal Observation to Study Entrepreneurial Opportunity: A Reflection, SAGE Research Methods Cases. SAGE Publications Ltd, London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526490964 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526490964
Arshed, I. A. (2009). Parent-child relationship in Islam. Islam 101. Retrieved June 1, 2012 from https://www.islam101.com/sociology/parchild.htm
Bartholomew, A., & O’Donohoe, S. (2003). Everything under control: A child’s eye view of advertising. Journal of Marketing Management, 19(3–4), 433–457. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2003.9728218 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2003.9728218
Biagi, S. (2006). Media/Impact: An introduction to mass media. Thompson Wadsworth.
Blosser, B. J., & Roberts, D. F. (1985). Age differences in children’s perception of message intent – Response to T.V. news, commercials, educational spots and public service announcements. Communications Research, 12(4), 455–484. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365085012004002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009365085012004002
Boddewyn, J. J. (1984). Advertising to children: Regulation and self-regulation in 40 countries. International Advertising Association.
Buckingham, D. (1993). Children talking television: The making of television literacy. Falmer Press Ltd.
Chan, K., & Cai, X. (2009). Influence of television advertising on adolescents in China: an urban-rural comparison. Young Consumers, 10(2), 133–145. https://doi.org/10.1108/17473610910964714 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17473610910964714
Chan, K., & McNeal, J. U. (2006). Rural Chinese children as consumers: Consumption experience and information sources. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 5(3), 182–192. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.170 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.170
Domzal, T. J., & Kernan, J. B. (1992). Reading advertising: The what and how of product meaning. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 9(3), 48–64. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363769210035233 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/07363769210035233
Donohue, T. R., Henke, L. H., & Donohue, W. A. (1980). Do kids know what TV commercials intend? Journal of Advertising Research, 20(5), 51–57.
Dotson, M. J., & Hyatt, E. (2005) Major influence factors in consumer socialization. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(1), 35–42. https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510576536 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/07363760510576536
Evra, V. J. (1990). Television and child development, children youth and family consortium. Electric Clearinghouse.
Gaines, L., & Esserman, J. (1981). A quantitative study of young children’s comprehension of television programs and commercials. In J. F. Esserman (Ed.), Television advertising and children – Issues, research and findings (pp. 95–106). Child Research Service.
Goldberg, M. E., & Gorn, G. J. (1978). Some unintended consequences of T.V. advertising to children. Journal of Consumer Research, 5(1), 22–29. https://doi.org/10.1086/208710 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/208710
Gunter, B., & Furnham, A. (1998). Children as consumers: A psychological analysis of the young people’s market. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203272947 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203272947
Halan, D. (2003). Advertisements and children. Ad Express, ICFAI Press, Hyderabad, June, pp. 21-4.
Harley, R. I., & Baldinger, A. L. (1991). The ARF copy research validity project. Journal of Advertising Research, 31(2), 11–32.
Hawkins, D., & Mothersbaugh, D. (2010). Consumer behavior: Building marketing strategy (11th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Kline, S. (1995). Countering children’s sedentary lifestyle: An evaluative study of a media-risk education approach. Childhood, 12(2), 239–258. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568205051906 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568205051906
Laulor, M. A., & Prothers, A. (2003). Children’s understanding of television advertising intent. Journal of Marketing Management, 19(3–4), 411–431. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2003.9728217 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2003.9728217
Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Interpretation of statistical relations as a research operation. In P. F. Lazarsfeld & M. Rosenberg (Eds.), The language of social research (pp. 115–125). The Free Press.
Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. J. (2006). Does advertising literacy mediate the effects of advertising on children? A critical examination of two linked research literatures in relation to obesity and food choice. Journal of Communication, 56(3), 560–584. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00301.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00301.x
MacKenzie, S. B., & Lutz, R. J. (1989). An empirical examination of the structural antecedents of attitude-toward-the-ad in an advertising pre-testing context. Journal of Marketing, 53(2), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298905300204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298905300204
Martin, M. C. (1997). Children’s understanding of the intent of advertising: a meta-analysis. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 16(2), 205–216. https://doi.org/10.1177/074391569701600202 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/074391569701600202
McQuail, D., & Windahl, S. (1993). Communication models for the study of mass communications. Longman.
Mizerski, D. (2005). Issues concerning the effect of advertising on children, in ‘comments on advertising to children. International Journal of Marketing, 24(3), 395–405. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2005.11072931 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2005.11072931
O’Donohoe, S., & Tynan, C. (1998). Beyond sophistication: dimensions of advertising literacy. International Journal of Advertising, 17(4), 467–482. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.1998.11104733 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.1998.11104733
Oates, C., Blades, M., & Gunter, B. (2002). Children and television advertising: When do they understand persuasive intent? Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 1(3), 238–245. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.69 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.69
Pillai, T. R., & Ahamat, A. (2018). Social-cultural capital in the youth entrepreneurship ecosystem: Southeast Asia. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 12(2), 232–255. https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-08-2017-0063 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-08-2017-0063
Pollay, R. W., & Gallagher, K. (1990). Advertising and cultural values: reflections in the distorted mirror. International Journal of Advertising, 9(4), 359–372. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.1990.11107165 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.1990.11107165
Preston, C. (2000). Are children seeing through advertising ITC regulations. International Journal of Advertising, 19(1), 117–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2000.11104787 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2000.11104787
Ritson, M. and Elliott, R. (1995) in Bergadaa, M. (Ed.), “A model of advertising literacy: the praxiology and co-creation of advertising meaning”, paper presented at the European Marketing Academy Conference, ESSEC, Paris.
Robertson, T. S., & Rossiter, J. R. (1974). Children and commercial persuasion: An attribution theory analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 1(1), 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1086/208577 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/208577
Sandberg, H., Gidlof, K., & Holmberg, N. (2011). Children’s exposure to and perceptions of online advertising. International Journal of Communication, 5(1), 21–50.
Scott, W. (2004). Consumer socialisation. The Journal of Consumer Research, 1(2), 35–42.
Shrum, L. J., Burroughs, J. E., & Rindfleisch, A. (2005). Television’s cultivation of material values. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(3), 473–479. https://doi.org/10.1086/497559 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/497559
Ward, S., Wackman, D., & Wartella, E. (1977). How children learn to buy: The development of consumer information processing skills. SAGE Publications.
Wartella, E. (1982). Changing conceptual views of children’s consumer information processing. In A. A. Mitchell (Ed.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 9, 144–146). Association of Consumer Research.
Wilcox, B., Cantor, J., Dowrick, P., Kunkel, D., Linn, S., & Palmer, E. (2004). Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children: Recommendations. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/e539692009-001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/e539692009-001
Young, B. (1990). Television advertising and children. Clarendon Press.
Young, B. (2000). The child’s understanding of promotional communication. International Journal of Advertising and Marketing to Children, 2(3), 191–203. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb027651 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/eb027651