This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
IMPROVING RELATIONSHIP QUALITY: A RELATIONAL MODEL OF INTERNAL MARKETING AND COMMITMENT TO CUSTOMER SERVICE IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Corresponding Author(s) : Yessy Artanti
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 4 (2020): July
Purpose: This study aims to the mediating effects of commitment to customer service on the internal marketing and relationship quality of higher education institutions. Internal marketing is accessed by internal communication and training.
Methodology: The population of this research is the staff of the public service sector, especially employees in universities at Surabaya, East of Java, Indonesia. Researchers surveyed 220 employees in both private and public universities who have worked with a minimum period of 5 (five) years. These samples were selected by judgment sampling method and Path Analysis was employed to analyze data.
Main Findings: Results identified internal communication and training influenced commitment to customer service which further influenced their relationship quality.
Application of this study: Internal marketing practice is essential to explaining the commitment to customer service and relationship quality, especially in the higher education institutions.
Novelty/Originality of this study: To the best, our knowledge is seen from testing the effects of internal marketing on two types of internal marketing outcomes and the selection of university as the object of study.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Ahmed, P., Rafiq, M., & Saad, N., (2002). Internal Marketing and the mediating role of organisational competencies. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37No. 9, pp. 1221-1241. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310486960 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310486960
Ahmed, P. K., and Rafiq, M. (2003). Internal Marketing Issues and Challenges. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37 No. 9, pp. 1177-1186. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310498813 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310498813
Ahmed and Nahla, (2014). Effect of Internal Marketing Adoption on the Performance of the Commercial Banks in Egypt, International Business and Social Science Research Conference.
Akroush, Mamoun N., ElSamen, Abu-Amjad A., Samawi, Ghazi A., and Odetallah, Abdelhadi L. (2013). Internal marketing and service quality in restaurants, Marketing Intelligent and Planning, Vol.31 No. 4, pp. 304-336. https://doi.org/10.1108/02634501311324834 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02634501311324834
Ali,N. (2012). An exploratory study into the implementation of internal marketing in small insurance brokers in the United Kingdom. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, Vol.17 No.3, pp. 242-254. https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2012.15 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2012.15
Altarifi,S. (2014).Internal marketing activities in higher education. International Journal of Business and Management, Vol.9 No.6, pp.126-140. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n6p126 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n6p126
Albassami, F. A., Al-Meshal, S. A., & Bailey, A. A., (2015). An investigation of internal marketing and its effects on employees in the banking sector in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 176-190. https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2015.11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2015.11
Álvarez, L.S., Casielles, R.V. and Martín, A.M.D. (2009). The Role of Commitment Perceived by theConsumer in Service Industries, Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, Vol. 7 Issue: 2, pp. 141-157. https://doi.org/10.2753/JMR1536-5433070204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/JMR1536-5433070204
Arleen Hernández-Díaz Theany Calderon-Abreu Maria Amador-Dumois Mario Córdova-Claudio. (2017). Internal marketing and customer-contact employees’ attitudinal outcomes Marketing internoylasactitudes de los empleados de contacto con los clients.Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, Vol. 30 Iss 1 pp. 124 – 143. https://doi.org/10.1108/ARLA-08-2015-0190 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ARLA-08-2015-0190
Asif, S. and Sargeant, A., (2000). Modelling internal communications in the financial services sector.European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34 Issue: 3/4, pp.299-318. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560010311867 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560010311867
Back, K. –J., Lee, C. –K., and Abbott, J., (2011). Internal Relationship Marketing: Korean Casino Employee Job Satisfaction and Organisation Commitment. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, Vol. 52 No. 2, pp. 111-124. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965510370742 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965510370742
Bailey, A., Anthony., Albassami, F., and Al-Meshal, S., (2015). The roles of employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the internal marketing-employee bank identification relationship. International Journal of Bank Marketing. Vol. 34. Iss 6, pp. 821-840. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-06-2015-0097 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-06-2015-0097
Balaji, M.S., Roy, S.K. and Wei, K.K. (2016). Does relationship communication matter in B2C service relationships? Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 30 Issue: 2, pp.186-200. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-08-2014-0290 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-08-2014-0290
Ballantyne, D. (2003). A relationship-mediated theory of internal marketing. European Journal of Marketing; Vol.37, No.9, pp 1242 – 1260. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310486979 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310486979
Bansal, H.S., Mendelson, M.B., and Sharma, B. (2001). The impact of internal Marketing activities on external marketing outcomes. Journal of Quality Management, Vol. 6, pp. 61–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1084-8568(01)00029-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1084-8568(01)00029-3
Bell, S. J., Mengüç, B., and Stefani, S. L. (2004). When Customers Disappoint: A Model of Relational Internal Marketing and Customer Complaints. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp. 112-116. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070303261467 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070303261467
Bell, S.J. and Luddington, J.A. (2006). Coping With Customer Complaints.Journal of Service Research, Vol 8 No. 3, February 2006221-233. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670505283785 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670505283785
Bennett, R., &Barkensjo, A. (2005). Internal marketing, negative experiences, and volunteers' commitment to providing high-quality services in a UK helping and caring charitable organization. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and nonprofit organizations, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 251-274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-005-7724-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-005-7724-0
Berry, L.L., (1981). The Employee as Customer. Journal Retail Banking, Vol. 3 No.1, pp. 25-28.
Berry, L.L., (1995). Relationship Marketing of Services—Growing Interest, Emerging Perspectives. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23 No. 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/009207039502300402 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/009207039502300402
Berry, L.L. (2002). Relationship Marketing of Services-Perspectives from 1983 and 2000, Journal of Relationship Marketing, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v01n01_05 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v01n01_05
Berry, L.L. and Parasuraman, A., (1991). Marketing for Services: Competing through Quality, The Free Press, New York, NY.
Bianchi, C. (2011). Inward internationalization of consumer services: lessons from Australian firms. Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 25 Issue: 4, pp.282-293. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876041111143113 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08876041111143113
Boshoff, C. and Mels, G. (1995). A causal model to evaluate the relationships among supervision, role stress, organizational commitment and internal service quality. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 29 Issue: 2, pp.23-42. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569510080932 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569510080932
Bouranta, N.G.M. and Kyriazopoulos. P (2005). The Impact of Internal Marketing to Market Orientation Concept and their Effects to Bank Performance, Operational Research. An International Journal. Vol. 5 No.2, pp. 349-362. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02944318 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02944318
Cahill, D. (1995). The managerial implications of the learning organization: A new tool for internal marketing, Journal of Services Marketing. Vol.9, No.4, pp. 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876049510094513 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08876049510094513
Campo, S., Díaz, A.M. and Yagüe, M.J (2014). Hotel innovation and performance in Employee Brand Promise. Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 57-70.
Chang, C.S., and Chang, H.C. (2008). Perceptions of Internal Marketing, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 8, No.87, pp. 92-100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04844.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04844.x
Caruana, A., & Calleya, P. (1998). The effect of internal marketing on organisational commitment among retail bank managers. International Journal of bank marketing, Vol. 16 No.3, pp. 108-116. https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329810213510 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02652329810213510
Chi, H.K., Yeh, H.R. and Chiou C . Y . (2008). The Mediating Effects of Internal Marketing on Transformational Leadership and Job Performance of Insurance Salespersons in Taiwan.TheBusiness Review, Vol. 11 December; No. 1.
Collins, B., & Payne, A. (1991). Internal marketing: a new perspective for HRM, European Management Journal, Vol. 9 No.3, pp. 261-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/0263-2373(91)90006-C DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0263-2373(91)90006-C
Conduit, J and Mavondo. F.T. (2001). How Critical Is Internal Customer Orientation to Market Orientation? Journal of Business Research, 51 (January), pp.11-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00044-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00044-2
Crosby, Lawrence A., Kenneth R. Evans, and Deborah Cowles. 1990. Relationship Quality in Services Selling: An Interpersonal Influence Perspective. Journal of Marketing, Vol.54 No.3, pp. 68-81. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299005400306 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299005400306
De Bussy, N. M., Ewing, M. T., & Pitt, L. F. (2003). Stakeholder theory and internal marketing communications: a framework for analysing the influence of new media. Journal of marketing communications, Vol.9 No.3, pp. 147-161. https://doi.org/10.1080/1352726032000129890 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1352726032000129890
De Bruin-Reynolds, L., Roberts-Lombard, M. and de Meyer, C. (2015). The traditional internal marketing mix and its perceived influence on graduate employee satisfaction in an emerging economy.Journal of Global Business and Technology, Vol.1 No.1, pp. 24-38.
Dias, M.G. and da Silva, C. (2013). EndomarketingemumaUniversidadeComunitária: Uma Análise a partirdas percepções dos colaboradores/Internal marketing in a Community University: an analysis based on the perceptions of administrative technicians. SINERGIA-Revista do Institutode Ciências Econômicas, Administrativas e Contábeis, Vol 17 No.2, pp. 77-86.
Donabedian, A. (1980). Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring, Volume I: The Definition of Quality and Approaches to Its Assessment, Health Administration Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Du Preez, R., & Bendixen, M. T., (2015). The impact of internal brand management on employee job satisfaction, brand commitment and intention to stay. International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.33 No.1, pp. 78-91. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-02-2014-0031
Dwyer, F.R., Schurr, P.H. and Oh, S. (1987).Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships, Journal of Marketing, 51, April, pp.11-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298705100202 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298705100202
Ewing, M. T., & Caruana, A. (1999). An internal marketing approach to public sector management: the marketing and human resources interface. International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol.12 No.1, pp. 17-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513559910262652 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513559910262652
Frandsen, F. and Johansen, W. (2011). The study of internal crisis communication: towards an integrative framework. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 16 Issue: 4, pp.347-361. https://doi.org/10.1108/13563281111186977 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13563281111186977
Fullerton, G. (2014).The moderating effect of normative commitment on the service quality-customer retention relationship.European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 48 Issue: 3/4, pp.657-673. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-06-2011-0333 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-06-2011-0333
Furtmueller, E., Dick, R.V. and Wilderom, C. (2011).Service behaviours of highly committed financial consultants. Journal of Service Management, Vol. 22 Issue: 3, pp.317-343. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564231111136854 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09564231111136854
Garbarino, E., & Johnson, Mark S. (1999). The Different Roles of Satisfaction, Trust, and Commitment in Customer Relationships. Journal of Marketing, Vol.63 No.2 (April), pp. 70-87. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299906300205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299906300205
George, W. R. (1990). Internal marketing and organizational behavior: A partnership in developing customer-conscious employees at every level. Journal of Business research, Vol. 20 No.1, pp. 63-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(90)90043-D DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(90)90043-D
George, J.M. (1998).Salesperson Mood at Work: Implication for Helping Customers. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 18 (Summer), pp. 23-30.
Ghozali, I.(2013). Model PersamaanStruktural, Konsep dan AplikasiDengan Program AMOS 21. 5 ed. Semarang, Indonesia: Badan PenerbitUndip.
Giovanis, A. (2016).Consumer-brand relationships’ development in the mobile internet market: Evidence from an extended relationship commitment paradigm. Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 25 Issue: 6, pp.568-585. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-05-2015-0884 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-05-2015-0884
González, G.B., Sasaki, I. and Zamora, D.T. (2016).Understanding the impact of internal marketing practices on both employees ' and managers ' organizational commitment in elderly care homes. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Vol. 26 Issue: 1, pp.28-49. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-09-2014-0216 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-09-2014-0216
Goolsby, J.R. and Hunt, S.D. (1992).Cognitive Moral Development and Marketing. Journal of Marketing; January, Vol. 56 No.1, pp. 55. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299205600106 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299205600106
Gounaris, S.P. (2006).Internal-market orientation and its measurement. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 432-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.10.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.10.003
Gray, B. J. (2006). Benchmarking Services Branding Practices. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.22 No.(7/8), pp. 717-758. https://doi.org/10.1362/026725706778612095 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1362/026725706778612095
Gronroos, C. (1981). Internal marketing - an integral part of marketing theory. in Donnelly, J.H. and George, W.E. (Eds), Marketing of Services, American Marketing Association Proceedings Series, pp. 236-238.
Gronroos, C. (1990). Relationship Marketing: The Strategy Continuum. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 252-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02893863 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02893863
Grönroos, C. (1996). Relationship marketing: strategic and tactical implications. Management decision, Vol.34 No.(3), pp. 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251749610113613 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00251749610113613
Ha, NC., Bakar, R.A. and Jaafar, S.I.S. (2007).Internal Marketing Issues in Service Organizations in Malaysia. International Review of Business Research Papers, Vol.3 No.5 pp. 134-145.
Hemsley-Brown, J. and Oplatka, I. (2006). Universities in a competitive global marketplace: A systematic review of the literature on higher education marketing. International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol.19. No.4. pp.316-338. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513550610669176 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513550610669176
Huang, Jin-An. Weng, Rhay-Hung, Lai, Chi-Shiun, and San-Hu, Jer. (2012).Perceptual Market Orientation Gap and Its Impact on Relationship Quality and Patient Loyalty: The Role of Internal Marketing. Evaluation and The Health Professions, Vol.36 No.92, pp. 204-227. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278712458797 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278712458797
Huang, Y. T., and Rundle-Thiele, S. (2013), Exploring Internal Marketing Measurement, Working paper. Griffith University.
Huang, Y.T., and Rundle-Thiele, S. (2015). A holistic management tool for measuring internal marketing activities. Journal of Service Marketing, Vol. 29 Iss 6/7, pp. 571-584. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-03-2015-0112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-03-2015-0112
Huang, J.A., Tsai, W.C., Chen, Y.C., Hu, W.H., and Yang,D.Y. (2003). Factors associated with frequent use of emergency services in a medical center. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association,Vol. 102, pp. 222–228.
Huang, J.-A., Hu, J.-S., Lai,C.-S., and Weng, R. -H. (2011). The impact of market Orientate on the physician-patient relationship: Aqualitative analysis. The Journal of Health Sciences, Vol. 13,pp. 48–61.
Hunt, S.D., Wood, V.R. and Chonko, L.B. (1991). Corporate Ethical Values and Organizational Commitment in Marketing. The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, No. 3 (July), pp. 79 -90. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298905300309 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298905300309
Hwang, I.S. and Chi. D.J. (2005).Relationships among Internal Marketing, Employee Job Satisfaction and International Hotel Performance: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Management Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 285.
Izogo, E.E. (2017).Customer loyalty in telecom service sector: the role of service quality and customer commitment. The TQM Journal, Vol. 29 Issue: 1, pp.19-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-10-2014-0089 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-10-2014-0089
Jones, T.D., Taylor, S.F. and Bansal, H.S. (2009).Targets of commitment in service provider consumer relationships: a prototyping study. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, Vol. 12 Issue: 1, pp.36-48. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750910927205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750910927205
Jou, J.Y., Chou, C.K., and Fu, F.L. (2008). Development of an Instrument to Measure Internal Marketing Concept. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.66-79.
Joung, H.W., Goh, B.K., Huffman, L., Yuan, J.J. and Surles, J. (2015). Investigating relationships between internal marketing practices and employee organizational commitment in the foodservice industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 27 No. 7, pp 1618-1640. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-05-2014-0269 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-05-2014-0269
Keller, S.B., Lynch, D.F., Ellinger, A.E. and Ozment, J. (2006).The Impact of internal Marketing Efforts In Distribution Service Operations. Journal of Business Logistics; Vol.27, No.1; pp. 109. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2158-1592.2006.tb00243.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2158-1592.2006.tb00243.x
Kitchen, P.J and Daly, F. (2002).Internal communication during change management. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 7 Issue: 1, pp.46-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/13563280210416035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13563280210416035
Kollat, J. and Farache, F. (2017). Achieving consumer trust on Twitter via CSR communication. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 34 Issue: 6, pp.505-514. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-03-2017-2127 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-03-2017-2127
Koskela, I. and Palukka, H. (2011). Trainer interventions as instructional strategies in air traffic control training. Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 23 Issue: 5, pp.293-314. https://doi.org/10.1108/13665621111141902 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13665621111141902
Lings, I.. and Brooks, R. (1998).Implementing and measuring the effectiveness of internal marketing .Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.14, pp. 325-351. https://doi.org/10.1362/026725798784959426 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1362/026725798784959426
Little, M.K. and Dean, A.M. (2006).Links between service climate, employee commitment and employees' service quality capability. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol.16 Issue: 5, pp.460-476. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520610686133 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520610686133
Mechanic, D., & Meyer, S. (2000). Concepts of trust among patients with serious illness. Social Science and Medicine, Vol.51 No.5, pp. 657–668. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00014-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00014-9
Mehra, S., Joyal, A.D., & Rhee, M. (2011). On adopting quality orientation as an operations philosophy to improve business performance in banking services. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol.28 No.9, pp. 951-968. https://doi.org/10.1108/02656711111172531 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02656711111172531
Money, A. H., & Foreman, S. (1996). The measurement of internal marketing: a confirmatory case study. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.11 No.(8), pp. 755-766. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.1995.9964388 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.1995.9964388
Moreira, A.C. and Silva, P.M. (2015). The trust-commitment challenge in service quality-loyalty relationships. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 28 Issue: 3, pp.253-266. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-02-2014-0017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-02-2014-0017
Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58 No.3, pp. 20-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299405800302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299405800302
Morrison, E.W. (1996). Organizational Citizenship Behaviors as a Critical Link Between HRM Practices and Service Quality. Human Resources Management 35 (Winter), pp. 493-512 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199624)35:4<493::AID-HRM4>3.0.CO;2-R DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199624)35:4<493::AID-HRM4>3.0.CO;2-R
Mouawad, M. and Kleiner, B.H. (1996). New developments in customer service training. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 6 Issue: 2, pp.49-56. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604529610109774 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09604529610109774
Mudie, P. (2003). Internal customer: By design or by default. European Journal of Marketing, Vol.37 No.9, pp.1261-1276. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310486988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560310486988
Narteh, B. (2012). Internal marketing and employee commitment: Evidence from the Ghanaian banking industry. Journal of Financial Services Marketing,Vol.17 No.4, pp.284-300. https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2012.22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/fsm.2012.22
Naude, P.; J.Desai; and J.Murphy (2003). Identifying the Determinants Of Internal Marketing Orientation. European Journal of Marketing, Vol.37 No.9, pp. 1205-1220. https://doi.org/10.1108/0390560310486951 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/0390560310486951
Panigyrakis, G.G. and Theodoridis, P.K. (2009). Internal marketing impact on business performance in a retail context. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, Vol. 37 No. 7, pp. 600-628. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550910964620 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550910964620
Papasolomou, I., &Vrontis, D. (2006). Building corporate branding through internal marketing: the case of the UK retail bank industry. Journal of product & brand management, Vol.15 No.(1), pp. 37-47. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420610650864 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420610650864
Paraskevas, A. (2001). Internal Service Encounters in Hotels: An Empirical Study. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol.13 No.6, pp. 285-29. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110110400481 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110110400481
Patwardhan, A. and Patwardhan, P. (2009).Are consumer surveys valuable as a service improvement tool in health services? A critical appraisal. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 22 Issue: 7, pp.670-685. https://doi.org/10.1108/09526860910995010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09526860910995010
Prasad, A. and Steffes, E. (2002).Internal marketing at Continental Airlines: Convincing employees that management knows best. Marketing Letters, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 75-89. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016009201552 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016009201552
Peccei, R., & Rosenthal, P. (1997). The antecedents of employee commitment to customer service: evidence from a U.K. Service context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 66-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585199700000041 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09585199700000041
Piercy, N. and N. Morgan.(1990). Internal marketing: making marketing happen, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol.8 No.1, pp. 4-6. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001069 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001069
Piercy, N. F. (1995). Customer satisfaction and the internal market: marketing our customers to our employees. Journal of Marketing practice: Applied marketing science, Vol.1 No.1, pp. 22-44. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000003878 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000003878
Preez, R.D. and Bendixen, M.T. (2015).The impact of internal brand management on employee job satisfaction, brand commitment and intention to stay. International Journal of BankMarketing,Vol.33, No.1, pp.78-91. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-02-2014-0031 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-02-2014-0031
Punjaisri, K., and Wilson, A. (2007). The Role of Internal Branding in the Delivery of times of crisis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 26 No. 8, pp. 1292 1311.
Quester, P. G. and Kelly, A. (1999).Internal Marketing Practices in the Australian Financial Sector: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Applied Management Studies, Vol.8 No.2, pp.21.
Rafiq, M.. and Ahmed, P.K. (1993).The scope of internal marketing: Defining the boundary between marketing and human resource management. Journal of Marketing Management, 9(3), pp.219– 232. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.1993.9964234 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.1993.9964234
Rafiq, M. and Ahmad, R.M. (2000).Advances in Internal Marketing: Definition, Synthesis and Extension. Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.14 No.6, pp.449-462. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040010347589 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040010347589
Rosca, V. (2015). Linking human resources with internal marketing in foot ball management. RevistaDe Management Comparat International, Vol.16. No.3, pp. 372-384
Sahi, G.K., Lonial, S., Gupta, M. and Seli, N. (2013). Revisiting internal market orientation: Anote. Journal of Services Marketing, Vol.27. No.5, pp. 385-403. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-09-2011-0131 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-09-2011-0131
Salehzadeh., Reza., Pool, J.K., Tabaeeian, R.A., Amani, M. and Mortazavi, M. (2017). The Impact of Internal Marketing and Market Orientation on Performance: An Empirical Study in Restaurant Industry. Measuring Business Excellence Hospitality Management, Vol. 27 No. 7, pp. 1618 1640. https://doi.org/10.1108/MBE-02-2016-0009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/MBE-02-2016-0009
Schwepker, C.H.Jr. and Good, D . J . (2011).Moral Judgment and its Impact on Business-to- Business Sales Performance and Customer Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics; Vol.98, pp. 609–625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0641-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0641-8
Sharma, N. and Patterson, P.G. (1999). The impact of communication effectiveness and service quality on relationship commitment in consumer, professional services. Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 13 Issue: 2, pp.151-170. https://doi.org/10.1108/08876049910266059 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08876049910266059
Sheth, J.N. and Parvatiyar, A. (2002). Evolving Relationship Marketing into a Discipline. Journal of Relationship Marketing, Vol. 1, No.1, pp 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v01n01_02 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v01n01_02
Shiu, Y. M., & Yu, T. W. (2010). Internal marketing, organisational culture, job satisfaction, and organisational performance in non-life insurance. The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 30 No.6, pp. 793-809. https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060701849840 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02642060701849840
Štimac, H. and Šimić, M.L. (2012). Competitiveness in higher education: A need for marketing orientation and service quality. Economics and Sociology, Vol.5 No.2, pp. 23-34. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2012/5-2/2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2012/5-2/2
Suh, T. and Lee, J. (2016). Internal audience segmentation and diversity in internal communication. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 21 Issue: 4, pp.450-464. https://doi.org/10.1108/CCIJ-05-2015-0024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/CCIJ-05-2015-0024
Tareef, F. and Balas, A. (2012). Marketing in higher education institutes: Using an internal marketing strategy and innovation models. Managerial challenges of the contemporary society, Proceedings, BabesBolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Vol. 3, pp.163-169.
Taylor, C. (1994). Baldrige Winners Committed to Service Quality. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 4 Issue: 2, pp.26-30. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604529410796170 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09604529410796170
Thomson, K. and Hecker, L. (2001). Value adding communication: Innovation in employee communication and internal marketing. Journal of Communication Management, Vol. 5 Issue: 1,pp.48-58. https://doi.org/10.1108/13632540110806668 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13632540110806668
Varey, R.J. (1995). Internal marketing: A review and some interdisciplinary research challenges. International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 40-63. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564239510078849 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09564239510078849
Varey, R. and Lewis, B. (1999). A broadened conception of internal marketing. European Journal of Marketing, Vol.33, No.9/10, pp. 926-944. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569910285869 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569910285869
VicentTortosa Edo JaumeLlorens-Monzonís Miguel ÁngelMoliner-Tena Javier Sánchez-García (2015). The influence of internal market orientation on external outcomes. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Vol. 25 Iss 4 pp. 486 – 523. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-11-2013-0259 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTP-11-2013-0259
Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, Vol.40, pp. 82–111. https://doi.org/10.2307/257021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/257021
Wetzels, M., Ruyter, K.D. and Birgelen, M.V (1998). Marketing service relationships: the role of commitment. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 13 Issue: 4/5, pp.406-423. https://doi.org/10.1108/08858629810226708 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08858629810226708
Zaman, K., Javaid, N., Arshad, A. and Bibi, S. (2012).Impact of Internal Marketing on Market Orientation and Business Performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science ,Vol.3 No. 12 (Special Issue), pp. 76.
Zampetakis, L.A. and Moustakis, V. (2007).Fostering corporate entrepreeurship through internal marketing - Implications for change in the public sector. European Journal Innovation, 10(4),pp.21. https://doi.org/10.1108/14601060710828754 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14601060710828754