Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
THE DIRECT EFFECT OF CLIMATE EMERGENCY AND SAFETY CLIMATE ON INTENTION TO SAFETY BEHAVIOR: A STUDY
Corresponding Author(s) : Nor Azma Rahlin
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 8 No. 3 (2020): May
Purpose of the study: The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of climate emergence (i.e., work ownership, Islamic work ethic, and employee safety climate) on the intention of safety behavior.
Methodology: The research framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Exchange Theory. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data from 400 first-line operators and supervisors within the Small Medium Enterprise. A total of 250 useable questionnaires with a response rate of 75% were used for data analysis. The five proposed hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in IBM-SPSS-AMOS.
Main Findings: The results indicate that climate emergence factors have a positive and significant effect on employee intention to safety behavior. Furthermore, employee safety climate found to be the strongest predictor of employee intention to safety behavior, while other climate emergence factors do not have a direct effect on the intention of safety behavior. The model accounted for 76% of the variance in climate emergence in the context of intention to safety behavior.
Applications of this study: The results obtained from this study contribute to the improvement of proactive safety performance measures in the small-medium enterprise. However, further efforts are required to achieve the enhanced safety performance level
Novelty/Originality of this study: This study adds to the existing psychological literature on climate and employee safety behavior. This present study enhanced the climate-based construct by improving the safety performance measurement for small-medium enterprises.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Abdus Satta, A., & Aiza Hussain, R. (2012). Impact of Islamic work ethics (IWEs), reward system (RS), and organizational work environment (OWE) on citizenship behavior of employees (CBE). Science International (Lahore) Journal, 24(4), 513–519.
Afthanorhan, A., Awang, Z., Rashid, N., Foziah, H., & Ghazali, P. (2019). Assessing the effects of service quality on customer satisfaction. Management Science Letters, 9(1), 13-24. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2018.11.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2018.11.004
Alhyasat, K. M. K. (2012). The role of Islamic work ethics in developing organizational citizenship behavior at the Jordanian Press Foundations. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 3(2), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1108/17590831211232555 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17590831211232555
Aubrey C. Daniels. (2000). Behavior Is a Function of Its Consequences. In Bringing Out the Best in People. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Education.
Asnawi, A., Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., Mohamad, M., & Karim, F. (2019). The influence of hospital image and service quality on patients’ satisfaction and loyalty. Management Science Letters, 9(6), 911-920. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2019.2.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2019.2.011
Awang, Z. (2015). Introduction to SEM in AMOS. In SEM Made Simple: A gentle approach to learning the structural equation model (pp. 17–43). Bangi: MPWS Publisher.
Awang, Z, Lim, SH., and Zainudin, NFS. (2018). Pendekatan Mudah SEM- Structural Equation Modelling. Bandar Baru Bangi, MPWS Rich Resources.
Awang, Z., Rahlin, N. A., & Afthanorhan, A. (2019). A conceptual framework for the best practices of behavior-based safety performance evaluation in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 17(4), 504–513. https://doi.org/10.5937/jaes17-19962 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/jaes17-19962
Azjen. (2001). The theory of planned behavior: Organizational behavior and human decision processes. In Theories of Cognitive Self-Cognition (pp. 179– 211). ttps://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Aziz, MI., Afthanorhan, A., and Awang, Z. (2016). The talent development model for a career in Islamic Banking Institutions: A SEM approach. Cogent Busines and Management 3(1), 1186259. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2016.1186259 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2016.1186259
Bahkia, A.S., Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., Ghazali, P.L., Foziah, H. (2019). Exploratory Factor Analysis on occupational stress in the context of Malaysian sewerage operations AIP Conference Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5121111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5121111
Brijs, K., Brijs, T., Sann, S., Trinh, T. A., Wets, G., & Ruiter, R. A. C. (2014). Psychological determinants of motorcycle helmet use among young adults in Cambodia. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 26, 273–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.08.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.08.002
Burke, M. J., Sarpy, S. A., Tesluk, P. E., & Crowe, S. K. (2002). General safety performance: A test of a grounded theoretical model. Personnel Psychology, 55, 429–457. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2002.tb00116.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2002.tb00116.x
Burt, C. D., Williams, S., & Wallis, D. (2012). Recruit safety expectations: relationships with trust and perceived job risk. Saf. Sci., 50, 1079–1084. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.019
Cagno, E., Micheli, G. J. L., Masi, D., & Jacinto, C. (2013). An economic evaluation of OSH and its way to SMEs: A constructive review. Safety Science, 53, 134–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.08.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2012.08.016
Champahom, T., Jomnonkwao, S., Satiennam, T., Suesat, N., & Ratanavaraha, V. (2019). Modeling of safety helmet use intention among students in urban and rural Thailand based on the theory of planned behavior and Locus of Control. Social Science Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2019.02.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2019.02.003
Chee, H., Ramayah, T., & Subramaniam, C. (2018). The relationship between critical success factors, internal control, and safety performance in the Malaysian manufacturing sector. Safety Science, 104(January), 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.01.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.01.002
Chen, D., & Tian, H. (2012). Behavior-Based Safety for Accidents Prevention and Positive Study in China Construction Project. Procedia Engineering, 43, 528–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.08.092 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.08.092
Choudhry, R. M. (2012). Implementation of BBS and the Impact of Site-Level Commitment. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 138(4), 296–304. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EI.1943-5541.0000111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EI.1943-5541.0000111
Choudhry, R. M. (2014). Behavior-based safety on construction sites: A case study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 70, 14–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.03.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2014.03.007
Choudhry, R. M., & Fang, D. (2008). Why operatives engage in unsafe work behavior: Investigating factors on construction sites. Safety Science, 46(4), 566–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.06.027 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.06.027
Choudhry, R. M., Fang, D., & Mohamed, S. (2007). The nature of safety culture: A survey of the state-of-the-art. Safety Science, 45(10), 993–1012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2006.09.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2006.09.003
Clarke, S. (2010). An integrative model of safety climate: Linking psychological climate and work attitudes to individual safety outcomes using meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3), 553–578. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X452122 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X452122
Cui, L., Fan, D., Fu, G., & Zhu, C. J. (2013). An integrative model of organizational safety behavior. Journal of Safety Research, 45, 37–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.01.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2013.01.001
DeJoy, D. M. (2005). Behavior change versus culture change: Divergent approaches to managing workplace safety. Safety Science, 43(2), 105–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2005.02.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2005.02.001
Elango, B., Paul, K., Kundu, S. K., & Paudel, S. K. (2010). Organizational ethics, individual ethics, and ethical intentions in international decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(4), 543–561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0524-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0524-z
Fang, W., Love, P. E. D., Luo, H., & Ding, L. (2020). Computer vision for behavior-based safety in construction: A review and future directions. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 43(August 2019), 100980. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2019.100980 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aei.2019.100980
Farrukh, M., Butt, S., & Mansori, S. (2015). Innovation capability: The role of Islamic work ethics. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 5(7), 125.
Felix, R., & Almaguer, J. (2019). Nourish what you own : psychological ownership, materialism, and pro-environmental behavioral intentions. Journal of Consumer Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-10-2017-2417 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-10-2017-2417
Floyde, A., Lawson, G., Shalloe, S., Eastgate, R., & D’Cruz, M. (2013). The design and implementation of knowledge management systems and e-learning for improved occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized enterprises. Safety Science, 60, 69–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2013.06.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2013.06.012
Fogarty, G. J., & Shaw, A. (2010). Safety climate and the theory of planned behavior: Towards the prediction of unsafe behavior. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1455–2459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.08.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.08.008
Fugas, C. S., Silva, S. A., & Meliá, J. L. (2012). Another look at safety climate and safety behavior: Deepening the cognitive and social mediator mechanisms. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 468–477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.08.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2011.08.013
Griffin, M., & Neal, A. (2000). Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(3), 347–358. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89188.8.131.527 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.2067
Guo, B. H. W., Goh, Y. M., & Wong, K. L. X. (2018). A system dynamics view of a behavior-based safety program in the construction industry. Safety Science, 104(September 2017), 202–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.01.014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.01.014
Hsu, D. K. (2013). ‘ This is my venture !’ The effect of psychological ownership on the intention to reenter entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 26(4), 387–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2013.821770 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2013.821770
Huang, Y. H., Robertson, M. M., Lee, J., Rineer, J., Murphy, L. A., Garabet, A., & Dainoff, M. J. (2014). Supervisory interpretation of safety climate versus employee safety climate perception: Association with safety behavior and outcomes for lone workers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 26(PB), 348–360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.04.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2014.04.006
Huyghebaert, T., Gillet, N., Lahiani, F. J., Dubois-Fleury, A., & Fouquereau, E. (2018). Psychological safety climate as a human resource development target: Effects on workers functioning through need satisfaction and thwarting. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(2), 169–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422318756955 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422318756955
Ian Glendon, A., McNally, B., Jarvis, A., Chalmers, S. L., & Salisbury, R. L. (2014). Evaluating a novice driver and pre-driver road safety intervention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 64, 100–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.11.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.11.017
Khalid, M., Bashir, S., Khan, A. K., & Abbas, N. (2018). When and how abusive supervision leads to knowledge hiding behaviors: An Islamic work ethics perspective. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 39(6), 794–806. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-05-2017-0140 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-05-2017-0140
Khan, A. K., & Moss, S. (2018). When and How Subordinate Performance Leads to Abusive Supervision : A Social Dominance Perspective, 44(7), 2801–2826. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316653930 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316653930
Kongtip, P., Yoosook, W., & Chantanakul, S. (2008). Occupational health and safety management in small and medium-sized enterprises: An overview of the situation in Thailand. Safety Science, 46(9), 1356–1368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.09.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.09.001
Kumar, N., & Rose, R. C. (2010). Examining the link between Islamic work ethic and innovation capability. Journal of Management Development, 29(1), 79–93. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621711011009081 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/02621711011009081
Lee, C. J., & Beck, K. H. (2019). Mediational impact of perceived risk on drowsy driving intention and willingness in university students. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 63, 165–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2019.04.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2019.04.008
Lee, T.-Z., Wu, C.-H., & C.-W. Hong. (2007). An empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior in Taiwan’s facilities. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), 13(3), 255–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2007.11076726 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2007.11076726
Lee, W.-G., Jeon, Y.-H., Kim, J.-W., & Jung, C.-Y. (2014). Effects of Job Security and Psychological Ownership on Turnover Intention and Innovative Behavior of Manufacturing Employees. Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science, 16(1), 53–68. https://doi.org/10.12812/ksms.2014.16.1.53 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12812/ksms.2014.16.1.53
Legg, S. J., Olsen, K. B., Laird, I. S., & Hasle, P. (2015). Managing safety in small and medium enterprises. Safety Science, 71(PC), 189–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.11.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.11.007
Li, H., Lu, M., Hsu, S. C., Gray, M., & Huang, T. (2015). Proactive behavior-based safety management for construction safety improvement. Safety Science, 75, 107–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.01.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.01.013
Liu, X., Huang, G., Huang, H., Wang, S., Xiao, Y., & Weiqing Chen. (2015). Safety climate, safety behavior, and worker injuries in the Chinese manufacturing industry. Safety Science, 78, 173–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.04.023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.04.023
Lu, L., Liu, J., & Zhao, N. (2017). Why employees stay : the roles of psychological ownership, territoriality, and work relationship closeness in affecting employee turnover intention. Frontiers of Business Research in China, 10(11), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s11782-017-0010-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s11782-017-0010-x
Ma, Q., & Yuan, J. (2009). An exploratory study on safety climate in Chinese manufacturing enterprises. Safety Science, 47(7), 1043–1046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2009.01.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2009.01.007
Mahfouz., S., A., Awang., Z., & Muda., H. (2019). The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Employee Commitment in the Construction Industry. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 7(10)
Mahmud, M., & Yusof, S. M. (2018). The influence of religiosity on safety behavior of workers: A Proposed Framework. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26(1), 1–20.
Masi, D., & Cagno, E. (2015). Barriers to OHS interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises. Safety Science, 71, 226–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.05.020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.05.020
Masi, D., Cagno, E., Micheli, G. J. L., Cagno, E., & Micheli, G. J. L. (2015). Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating OSH Interventions in SMEs : A Pilot, Exploratory Study Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating OSH Interventions in SMEs : A Pilot, Exploratory Study. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 20(385–405). https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2014.11077059 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2014.11077059
McLain, D. L. (2014). Sensitivity to social information, social referencing, and safety attitudes in a hazardous occupation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4), 425–436. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037126 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037126
Mearns, K., Whitaker, S. M., & Flin, R. (2003). Safety climate, safety management practice, and safety performance in offshore environments. Safety Science, 41(8), 641–680. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(02)00011-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(02)00011-5
Mullen, J., Kelloway, E. K., & Teed, M. (2017). Employer safety obligations, transformational leadership, and their interactive effects on employee safety performance. Safety Science, 91, 405–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.09.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.09.007
Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: A meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021484 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021484
Nguyen, D. T. N., Teo, S. T. T., Grover, S. L., & Nguyen, N. P. (2017). Psychological safety climate and workplace bullying in Vietnam’s public sector. Public Management Review, 00(00), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1272712 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1272712
Nguyen, N. T., & Biderman, M. D. (2008). Studying ethical judgments and behavioral intentions using structural equations: Evidence from the multidimensional ethics scale. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(4), 627–640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9644-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9644-5
Pierce, J. L., Kostova, T., & Dirks, K. T. (2001). Toward a theory of psychological ownership in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 298–310. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4378028 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4378028
Pierce, J. L., Rubenfeld, S. A., & Morgan, S. (1991). Employee ownership: A conceptual model of process and effects. Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 121–144. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4279000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1991.4279000
Rahlin, N.A., Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., & Aimran, N. (2019). Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Safety Climate in Small Manufacturing Enterprises: Translation, Validation, and Application of Generic Safety Climate Questionnaire. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 7(10).
Rahlin, N.A., Awang, Z., Afthanorhan, A., & Aimran, N. (2019a). The Art of Covariance Based Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Evidence from SME’S. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, 5(2), Special Edition.
Rezaei, R., Mianaji, S., & Ganjloo, A. (2018). Factors affecting farmers’ intention to engage in on-farm food safety practices in Iran: Extending the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Rural Studies, 60(April), 152–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.04.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.04.005
Schneider, B., & Barbera, K. M. (2014). The Oxford handbook of organizational climate and culture. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199860715.001.0001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199860715.001.0001
Shkeer, A.S., and Awang, Z. (2019). Exploring Items for Measuring Marketing Information System Construct: An Exploratory Factor analysis. International Review of Management and Marketing, 9(6), 87-97. https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.8622
Shkeer, A.S., and Awang, Z. (2019a). The Impact of Marketing Information System Components on Organizational Decision Making: A case of five-star hotels in Jordan. International Review of Management and Marketing, 9(6), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.8622 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.8622
SME Corporation Malaysia. (2017a). Key Statistics on SMEs. In SME Annual Report 2016/2017 (pp. 8–9). Kuala Lumpur: SME Corporation Malaysia.
SME Corporation Malaysia. (2017b). SME Developments and Outlook. In SME Annual Report 2016/2017 (pp. 14–34). Kuala Lumpur.
Smith, T. D. (2017). An assessment of safety climate, job satisfaction, and turnover intention relationships using a national sample of workers from the USA. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 3548(January 2017), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2016.1268446 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2016.1268446
Talha, M., Sallehhuddin, A., Masoud, S., & Said, A. M. A. (2013). The relationship of ethical climate with intention and socially responsible investment behavior: A structural equation model analysis. African Journal of Business Management, 7(19), 1938.
Tei-Tominaga, M., & Nakanishi, M. (2018). The influence of supportive and ethical work environments on work-related accidents, injuries, and serious psychological distress among hospital nurses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020240 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020240
Tremblay, A., & Badri, A. (2018a). A novel tool for evaluating occupational health and safety performance in small and medium-sized enterprises : The case of the Quebec forestry/pulp and paper industry. Safety Science, 101(August 2017), 282–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.09.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.09.017
Tremblay, A., & Badri, A. (2018b). Assessment of occupational health and safety performance evaluation tools: State of the art and challenges for small and medium-sized enterprises. Safety Science, 101(May 2017), 260–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.09.016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.09.016
Unnikrishnan, S., Iqbal, R., Singh, A., & Nimkar, I. M. (2015). Safety management practices in small and medium enterprises in India. Safety and Health at Work, 6(1), 46–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2014.10.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2014.10.006
Uryan, Y. (2010). Organizational safety culture and individual safety behavior: A case study of the Turkish National Police Aviation Department. The University of Central Florida.
Van Dyne, L., & Pierce, J. L. (2004). Psychological ownership and feelings of possession: Three field studies predicting employee attitudes and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(4), 439–459. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.249 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.249
Wong, D. B., & Lee, S. G. (2016). Modeling the predictors of intention in workplace safety compliance of a multi-ethnic workforce. Safety Science, 88, 155–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.05.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.05.003
Yousef, D. (2000). Organizational commitment as a mediator of the relationship between Islamic work ethic and attitudes toward organizational change. Human Relations, 53(4), 513–537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726700534003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726700534003
Yousef, D. (2001). Islamic work ethic – A moderator between organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a cross‐cultural context. Personnel Review, 30(2), 152–169. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480110380325 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480110380325
Yusof, Y., Awang, Z., Jusoff, K., & Ibrahim, Y. (2017). The influence of green practices by non-green hotels on customer satisfaction and loyalty in the hotel and tourism industry. International Journal of Green Economics, 11(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGE.2017.082716 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJGE.2017.082716
Zhang, Y., Fang, Y., Wei, K. K., & Chen, H. (2010). Exploring the role of psychological safety in promoting the intention to continue sharing knowledge in virtual communities. International Journal of Information Management, 30(5), 425–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2010.02.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2010.02.003
Zhou, L., Liu, Y., Chen, Z., & Zhao, S. (2018). Psychological mechanisms linking ethical climate to employee whistle-blowing intention. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 33(2), 196–213. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-09-2017-0292 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-09-2017-0292
Zhou, Q., Fang, D., & Wang, X. (2008). A method to identify strategies for the improvement of human safety behavior by considering safety climate and personal experience. Safety Science, 46(10), 1406–1419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.10.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.10.005
Zohar, D. (1980). Safety climate in industrial organizations: Theoretical and applied implications. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.65.1.96 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.65.1.96
Zohar, D. (2008). Safety climate and beyond: A multi-level multi-climate framework. Safety Science, 46(3), 376–387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.03.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.03.006
Zohar, D. (2010). Thirty years of safety climate research: Reflections and future directions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(5), 1517–1522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.12.019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.12.019
Zohar, D., Huang, Y., Lee, J., & Robertson, M. (2014). A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 62, 17–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.09.005