This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright without restrictions for their published content in this journal. HSSR is a SHERPA ROMEO Green Journal.
SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION AND REDUCTION IN FAMILY SIZE IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA-PAKISTAN
Corresponding Author(s) : Aman Ullah
Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews,
Vol. 9 No. 2 (2021): March
Purpose of the study: The present study examines the association between education and reduction in family size in district Peshawar.
Methodology: The results are based on the data gathered from 384 sampled respondents belonging to 6 communities that included 3 each from rural and urban areas of District Peshawar. The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis.
Main Findings: The study found a positive trend among the sampled families towards the decrease in family size which found the norm in the selected area where many respondents were still considering a large number of children as the blessing of Almighty Allah. The major role this regard was played by the education of the sampled respondents through generating more awareness about small family size along with increased exposure to norms favoring a decrease in family size. It was also influenced by more communication among the sampled couples. The education further enabled the sampled respondents to get more information about family planning and the institutions designed to promote family planning in Pakistan. It ultimately motivated the respondents to use contraceptives to decrease family size.
Applications of this study: The study recommends promoting and enhancing the trend through a campaign for bringing a change in the attitude and action of the people towards making a family size required for the country.
The originality of this study: This study will be helpful for policy Implications.
Download CitationEndnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS)
Akmam, W. (2002). Women’s education and fertility rates in developing countries, with special reference to Bangladesh. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics, 12(4), 138-143.
Åslund, O., & Grönqvist, H. (2010). Family size and child outcomes: Is there really no trade-off? Labour Economics, 17(1), 130-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2009.05.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.labeco.2009.05.003
Basu, A. M. (1999). Fertility Decline and Increasing Gender Imbalance in India, Including a Possible South Indian Turnaround. Development and Change, 30(2), 237-263. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00116 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00116
Basu, A. M. (2002). Why does Education Lead to Lower Fertility? A Critical Review of Some of the Possibilities. World Development, 30(10), 1779-1790. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00072-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00072-4
Bauer, G., & Kneip, T. (2014). Dyadic fertility decisions in a life course perspective. Advances in Life Course Research, 21, 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2013.11.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2013.11.003
Berrington, A., & Pattaro, S. (2014). Educational differences in fertility desires, intentions and behaviour: A life course perspective. Advances in Life Course Research, 21, 10-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2013.12.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2013.12.003
Bhargava, A. (2003). Family planning, gender differences and infant mortality: evidence from Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Econometrics, 112(1), 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(02)00162-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4076(02)00162-8
Borenstein, E., Kendal, J., & Feldman, M. (2006). Cultural niche construction in a metapopulation. Theoretical Population Biology, 70(1), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2005.10.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2005.10.003
Carl, H. (2006). World Population Data Sheet of the Population Reference Bureau (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2006).
Cooper, D. R., Schindler, P. S., & Sun, J. (2006). Business research methods (Vol. 9): Mcgraw-hill New York.
Götmark, F., & Andersson, M. (2020). Human fertility in relation to education, economy, religion, contraception, and family planning programs. BMC public health, 20(1), 1-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8331-7
Gwako, E. L. M. (1997). Married women's ideal family size preferences and family planning practices: Evidence from rural Kenya. The Social Science Journal, 34(3), 369-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0362-3319(97)90035-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0362-3319(97)90035-5
Ihara, Y., & W. Feldman, M. (2004). Cultural niche construction and the evolution of small family size. Theoretical Population Biology, 65(1), 105-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2003.07.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tpb.2003.07.003
Jejeebhoy, S. J. (1995). Women's education, autonomy, and reproductive behaviour: Experience from developing countries. OUP Catalogue.
Kaboudi, M., Ramezakhani, A., Manouchehri, H., & Hajizadeh, E. (2013). Relationship between age of marriage, women’s education and fertility 1954-93: A study in the west of Iran. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 10(2), 855-860. doi:10.13005/bbra/1207 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/1207
Kakar, Z. K., Khilji, B. A., & Ullah, Z. (2011). Effect of female education on family size in Pakistan: a case study of Quetta city. Journal of international academic research, 11(2), 37-41.
Kamal, A., & Pervaiz, M. K. (2011). Factors Affecting the Family Size in Pakistan: Clog-log Regression Model Analysis. Journal of Statistics, 18(1).
Lloyd, C. B., Kaufman, C. E., & Hewett, P. (2000). The Spread of Primary Schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Fertility Change. Population and Development Review, 26(3), 483-515. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2000.00483.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2000.00483.x
Mandl, C. E. (2019). Diffusion of Innovations: The Much Sought After Tipping Point. In Managing Complexity in Social Systems (pp. 155-162): Springer.
Marcén, M., Molina, J. A., & Morales, M. (2018). The effect of culture on the fertility decisions of immigrant women in the United States. Economic Modelling, 70, 15-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2017.10.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2017.10.006
Mari Bhat, P. N. (2002). Returning a Favor: Reciprocity Between Female Education and Fertility in India. World Development, 30(10), 1791-1803. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00065-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00065-7
Martin, T. C. (1995). Women's education and fertility: results from 26 Demographic and Health Surveys. Studies in family planning, 187-202. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137845 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2137845
Morita, M., Ohtsuki, H., Sasaki, A., & Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. (2012). Factors affecting the number of children in five developed countries: a statistical analysis with an evolutionary perspective. Letters on Evolutionary Behavioral Science, 3(1), 7-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5178/lebs.2012.19
Murthi, M. (2002). Fertility change in Asia and Africa. World Development, 30(10), 1769-1778. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00062-1
Owuamanam, T. O., & Alowolodu, O. (2010). Educational pursuit and income as correlates of family size in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 23(2), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2010.11892820 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2010.11892820
Pirinçci, E., & Oguzöncül, A. F. (2008). Knowledge and attitude of married Turkish men regarding family planning. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, 13(1), 97-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13625180701622829
Sámano, R., Martínez-Rojano, H., Chico-Barba, G., Sánchez-Jiménez, B., Sam-Soto, S., Rodríguez-Ventura, A. L., . . . Sclavo-Melo, S. (2019). Sociodemographic factors associated with the knowledge and use of birth control methods in adolescents before and after pregnancy. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(6), 1022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061022
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach: John Wiley & Sons.
Sikandar, R., Khwaja, R., Shaikh, F., & Jatoi, N. (2012). Fertility preferences among women of reproductive age in an underdeveloped country. Medical Channel, 18(1).
Steer, L., & Wathne, C. (2010). Donor financing of basic education: Opportunities and constraints. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(5), 472-480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2010.03.013
Tropf, F. C., & Mandemakers, J. J. (2017). Is the association between education and fertility postponement causal? The role of family background factors. Demography, 54(1), 71-91.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11150-016-9357-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11150-016-9357-6
Ullah, A., Ashraf, H., Tariq, M., Aziz, S. Z., Sikandar, K. U. R., Ali, N., . . . Nisar, M. (2021). Battling the Invisible Infertility Agony: A Case Study of Infertile Women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 8(2), 89-105.
Ullah, A., Ashraf, H., Tariq, M., Aziz, S. Z., Zubair, s., Sikandar, K. U. R., . . . Nisar, M. (2021). Battling the Invisible Infertility Agony: A Case Study of Infertile Women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. 8(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/679 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29333/ejecs/679
Ullah, A., & Muhammad, N. (2020). Prevalence of mental health problems among youth involved in street crimes. Rawal Medical Journal, 45(4), 938-942.